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side, which is well watered with streams and by frequent rains, are very productive; but the lee side is dry and adapted to cultivation only in valleys.
CITIES, TOWNS, AND PORTS, KAUAI.
Nawiliwili Bay village.—The harbor of Nawiliwili is a small cove on the southeast side of the island, at the head of a bay of this name. The greater part of the harbor is blocked by shoals and reefs.
At Nawiliwili Bay is a large village; the soil in the vicinity is rich, producing sugar cane, taro, beans, sweet potatoes, etc.
There is a small pier in the northwest corner of the harbor, where landing may be easily effected; but the pier should be approached with caution, as a reef extends from the shore to the southward of it for two cables in an easterly direction.
The local mail steamer runs to this point. (See Communications.)
Wailua.—Formerly a place of some importance, 51/2 miles from Ninini Point, situated on a small river of the same name, in a barren sandy spot, surrounded by an extremely fertile district. The river, in common with the others along this coast, is closed at the mouth with sand bars, but inside is deep and navigable by canoes for several miles.
Coast villages.—From Kanala Point, north and west, 14 miles to Hanalei Bay, there are several small villages scattered along the coast, near the mouth of mountain streams closed by sand bars.
Hanalei.—Situated near the bottom of a bay of this name.
Anchorage ground in the bay is spacious in fine weather, but there is only room for about three vessels in bad weather under the lee of the reef near the eastern point of the bay.
A landing is generally effected inside the mouth of the river.
Supplies.—Supplies are plentiful—beef, vegetables, and fruits may be obtained in abundance. Water may be procured by sending boats into the river, which is easy of access in fine weather, and a short distance from the mouth the water is perfectly fresh. The town is very picturesquely placed; the mountains rise to a height of from 3,000 to 4,000 feet, and are clothed with verdure from base to summit, with numeroua rills running down their precipitous sides.
In front of the town is a good beach where great quantities of fish may be caught with a seine.
The district derives its name from the numerous rainbows formed by passing showers. The rains are so frequent as to clothe the country in perpetual green.
On the eastern side of the entrance is a conspicuous dark bluff-head, with two sandy beaches a short distance to the eastward.
A little way to the southward of this bluff is the mouth of a small river, in front of which is a bar that may be crossed by boats at half flood; inside, the bar carries a depth of from one to three quarters of a fathom and is navigable for several miles for boats drawing 3 feet. About 4 cables from the mouth of the river, on the northern bank, is a large farm, called "Charlton farm," owned by the English consul, who keeps a large number of cattle of good breed.
Waimea village.—Situated on Waimea Bay, southwest coast, placed at the mouth of river of the same name, which runs about 15 miles inland. At one time a populous native town, but now (1891) only a small village of little importance. It contains a church.
Boats may ascend the river for about three-quarters of a mile; this is the the only water here that is not brackish. A little to the eastward
of the village a shoal projects. The trade winds, deflected by the mountains, often raise a surf which renders landing at times very unpleasant, sometimes impracticable.
Waimea Bay should be approached with caution, as reefs extend to the southward. There is a railroad from Waimea to Kekaha. No details known.
Kaloa Bay village.—About 1 mile west of the south point of Kauai is a slight indentation of the coast, where there is a considerable village called Kaloa, off which anchorage may be obtained but in a very exposed position.
The country around the village of Kaloa is much broken by hills and inactive craters; but the soil is good, though dry and very stony, and is capable of cultivation in many places. There is a sugar plantation here, and there are several large cattle ranches in the vicinity.
The village may be recognized by many high buildings and two churches; it extends from the beach to a distance of 2 miles up the slope of a hill. Between the village and Makanuena, the southern extremity of the island, there is a low point running out into a rocky ledge that somewhat protects the anchorage.
There is a good landing place at Kaloa, in a small cove protected by a reef extending about 1 cable from shore; an artificial creek has been made at the head of this cove, with sufficient space for one boat to enter.
Supplies.—Supplies of beef, vegetables, and fruit may be obtained in abuudance.
Island of Molokai. (Chart B.)
Molokai is situated north of Lanai, from which it is separated by Pailolo Channel, 61/2 miles wide.
It is apparently formed by a chain of volcanic mountains about 40 miles long and 7 miles broad. The mountains are high and broken by deep ravines and water courses; the sides are clothed with verdure and ornamented with shrubs and trees.
Coast.—Lae o Ka Laau, the southwest extremity of Molokai, is a low black point. On the south side of the island are several small harbors, the best of which is Kaunakakai, midway between the two extremes.
From this point to the southeast extremity of the island the distance by the coast is about 21 miles, thence northward to Kalaua, the northeast point, about 2 miles.
Some 16 miles from Kalaua, and on a peninsula projecting about 2 miles into the sea, is placed the leper settlement of the Hawaiian Islands.
Interior.—One-third of the island of Molokai, towards the west end, is a barren waste not susceptible of cultivation, except in the rainy season. It has in consequence but few inhabitants, who are engaged mostly in fishing.
The eastern two-thirds is almost one entire mountain, rising gradually from the south until it attains an elevation of 2,500 feet, while on the north it is almost perpendicular. On the south side there is a narrow strip of land not exceeding a quarter of a mile in width, where dwell the greater part of the population. The soil is very rich, but owing to the want of moisture few plants will thrive even here. Resort is therefore had to the uplands, which are found to be susceptible of the highest degree of cultivation.
S. Doc. 231, pt 6----28
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