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"It must be remembered that in those days communication between the islands of the Pacific and the coast was very infrequent, depending on merchant ships that came from Boston twice a year, except for occasional chance vessels.

"Lord Paulet rightly conjectured that the Yankee merchants would jump at the offer to have all their business transacted at his expense, but he little dreamed of all the use that might be made of the opportunity he was giving them.

"The officers of the Boston, who would have been glad of an excuse for a forcible interference with his lordship's plans, not being allowed that pleasure, consoled themselves by giving a ball on board, to which the officers of the Carysfort were not invited.

"I was then a young merchant in Honolulu, and attended the ball with many other of the American residents. At its height I was quietly invited into the cabin of the Boston, where I found Capt. Long, Dr. Judd, previously a prominent American missionary, then acting as the King's minister, and other influential citizens and warm friends of the King. Here I was told of the King's desire to send an envoy to England to present his protest against Lord Paulet's act of violence, and his answer to the charges against him, and to demand the restitution of his sovereignty. I was informed also of the opportunity offered to the firm of Ladd & Co. of sending a messenger to the coast in the yacht.

"Ladd & Co., who were warm friends of the island Government, had proposed that the King should send a secret ambassador, in the character of their commercial agent, thus turning Lord Paulet's masterstroke against himself in the neatest possible way.

"I was asked if I would go in this double capacity of ostensible supercargo and actual minister plenipotentiary.

"Mr. Charles Brewer, who was one of the council, a noble-hearted man, with whom I was about associating myself in business—now enjoying a green old age in Boston—not only gave consent to my going, but agreed to advance for the King the necessary funds, and take his pay in fire-wood, all of the King's other revenues having been cut off.

"I readily accepted the commission. No time was to be lost. Lord Paulet had rechristened the Haikaika as 'Her Majesty's tender Albert, and was fitting her out with all possible dispatch.

"The King and his premier, a princess almost equal in rank, without whose signature none of his acts was valid, had left the island of Oahu immediately upon the cession, and in sullen dignity of despair "buried themselves among the mountains of the adjacent island of Maui, leaving Dr. Judd, his minister, to represent and protect his interests—a man of indomitable courage, unusual ability, and unflinching devotion to his sovereign.

"Those happy isles in that day did not boast a lawyer. My credentials were copied verbatim, except necessary variations, from the old Blue Book containing the credentials of John Adams as the first American minister to England. Mine were a commission as envoy extraordinary and minister plentipotentiary to the court of St. James from the native King of the Hawaiian Islands," the title Kamehameha was allowed by Lord Paulet to retain, with some half dozen other blank commissions signed by the King and premier, to be filled out by myself for other countries as occasion might require. These were rendered necessary by the uncertainty of my finding the King's other ambassadors,


Haalileo and Richards, with whom, in case I did find them, I was to associate myself.

"The papers were drawn up by Dr. Judd and a confidential clerk at midnight, in the royal tomb in Honolulu, with a king's coffin for a table. So secret was it necessary to keep the transaction that even this clerk was not trusted with the name of the ambassador, which was left to be inserted by myself after I had sailed. The papers prepared, a canoe with picked crew of Kanakas was dispatched from a distant point of the island to summon His Majesty and his suite to a midnight council. Crossing the boisterous channel in this frail conveyance, they landed at midnight on the shores of Waikiki, a suburb of Honolulu, and in its cocoanut grove my credentials received the signature and seal of the king and his Kuhina-nui—"great minister"—Kekauluohi, the "Bigmouthed Queen." Then the King and his attendants returned to their mountains without Lord Paulet having a suspicion that they had ever left them.

"The American consul at Honolulu took advantage of the opportunity also to make me the bearer of his dispatches to Washington, with details of the cession, which would, of course, have momentous interest to the American Government, and the protest of the American residents against the act of Lord Paulet."

XVI. Also the following extracts from the history of the hawaiian islands, by james jackson jarves, published in 1846.

"The chiefs, fully sensible of their political wants, sent, by Mr. Richards, in 1836, to the United States to procure a suitable person to fill the situation of legal adviser and teacher in the new policy circumstances were forcing upon them. In this way they were backed by the opinion of the mission, who, desirous of preserving themselves from the responsibility, would gladly have seen it in able and disinterested hands. The wants of the chiefs were fully appreciated by the American board, but nothing was effected. Individuals of talent, by the time they have acquired the experience suitable for such a post, which in its real effect would have been equivalent to the supreme direction of public affairs, generally have fixed themselves in permanent relations at home.

"With all the modern favor in the cause of missions, and the very many excellent discourses yearly uttered from pulpits, we rarely see entire disinterestedness manifested in the middle-aged—those who have known the world and tasted its goods, however prepared they may be by those very qualifications for the posts they so industriously urge upon others. The path of novelty, enterprise, and benevolence is rarely filled by any except the young and enthusiastic. That the chiefs, relying on the philanthropy of any experienced public man to have complied with their request, should have failed is what might reasonably have been anticipated. A young man, ambitious of the influence if not of the actual power of a Peter the Great or an Alfred, on a petty scale, might readily have been found, but the chiefs were suspicious of youth. Desiring age and experience, they should have offered a salary equivalent to some of the highest posts in the United States. On such a contingency few objections would have been found unanswerable. The path of duty would have been opened to many blind to all other considerations. This is human nature, as we see it in the pulpit and on the bench. In every position it requires its motive power.

"It is said that the honorable Theo. L. Frelingshuysen was invited


to become the adviser of the chiefs, but declined. At all events, Mr. Richards was wholly unsuccessful. On his return, the position of the chiefs being none the less embarrassing, compelled them to apply to the mission for aid. Without any definite action of their body, they commenced that system which by the natural course of events has led to the direct employment of several of their number—having first been disconnected from their ranks—in the service of the Government. Foreigners were required in public affairs. The chiefs chose those on whom they could most rely, and whatever may have been their errors of judgment, the result has shown that they were not mistaken in relying upon their zeal and fidelity: and it may be well be doubted whether, at that time, the Kingdom furnished men more suitable, from knowledge and experience with the people and foreigners to administer to its wants. The history of the policy they adopted will be traced to the period of its present development.

"The mission and their seceders were united in their views to build up a nation of Hawaiians distinct from all foreign influence. The following resolutions, taken from the missionary minutes for 1838, show the just views entertained at this date:

" ' 1st Resolved, That though the system of government in the Sandwich Islands has, since the commencement of the reign of Liholiho, been greatly improved through the influence of Christianity, and the introduction of written and printed laws and the salutary agency of Christian chiefs has proved a great blessing to the people; still, the system is so very imperfect for the management of the affairs of a civilized and virtuous nation as to render it of great importance that correct views of the rights and duties of rulers and subjects, and of the principles of jurisprudence and political economy, should be held up before the King and the members of the national council.

" ' 2d Resolved, That it is the duty of the missionaries to teach the doctrine that rulers should be just, ruling in the fear of God, seeking the best good of their nation, demanding no more of subjects, as such, than the various ends of the Government may justly require; and if church members among them violate the commands of God they should be admonished with the same faithfulness and tenderness in their dependents.

" ' 3rd Resolved, That rulers in power are so by the province of God, and in an important sense by the will or consent of the people, and ought not to resign or shrink from the cares and responsibilities of their offices; therefore, teachers of religion ought carefully to guard the subjects against contempt for the authority of their rulers, or any evasion or resistance of government orders, unless they plainly set at defiance the commands of God.

" ' 4th Resolved, That the resources of the nation are at is own disposal for its defense, improvement, and perfection, and subjects ought to be taught to feel that a portion of their time and services, their property or earnings, may rightfully be required by the sovereign or national council for the support of government in all its branches and departments, and that it is a Christian duty to render honor, obedience, fear, custom, and tribute to whom they are due, as taught in the 13th of Romans, and that the sin of disloyalty, which tends to confusion, anarchy, and ruin, deserves reproof as really and as promptly as that of injustice on the part of rulers or any other violation of the commands of God.'

" ' 5th Resolved, That rulers should be allowed to do what they will with their own, or with what they have a right to demand; we ought


to encourage the security of the right of subjects also to do what they will with tbeir own, provided they render to Caesar his due.'

" ' 6th Resolved, That rulers ought to be prompted to direct their efforts to the promotion of general intelligence and virtue as a grand means of removing the existing evils of the system, gradually defining and limiting by equitable laws the rights and duties of all classes, that thus by improving rather than revolutionizing the Government, its administration may become abundantly salutary, and the hereditary rulers receive no detriment but corresponding advantage.'

" ' 7th Besolved, That to remove the improvidence and imbecility of the people, and promote the industry, wealth, and happiness of the nation, it is the duty of the mission to urge mainly the motives of loyalty, patriotism, social kindness, and general benevolence; but, while on the one hand he should not condemn their artificial wants, ancient or modern, because they depend on fancy, or a taste not refined, he should, on the other, endeavor to encourage and multiply such as will enlist their energies, call forth ingenuity, enterprise, and patient industry, and give scope for enlarged plans of profitable exertion, which, if well directed, would clothe the population in beautiful cottons, fine linen, and silk, and their arable fields with rich and various productions suited to the climate; would adorn the land with numerous comfortable, substantial habitations, made pleasant by elegant furniture, cabinets, and libraries; with permanent and well endowed school houses and seminaries, large, commodious, and durable churches, and their seas and harbors with ships owned by natives sufficient to export to other countries annually the surplus products of their soil, which may, at no very distant period, amount to millions.

" ' 8th Besolved, That we deem it proper for members of this mission to devote a portion of their time to instructing the natives into the best method of cultivating their lands, and of raising flocks and herds, and of turning the various products of the country to the best advantage for the maintenance of their families, the support of government and of schools, and the institutions of the gospel and its ministers, at home and abroad.' "

"Mr. Richards entered upon his official duties by delivering to the chiefs a course of lectures on political economy and the general science of government. From the ideas thus derived, based upon their old forms, a constitution was drawn up. Although greatly limiting their power, the chiefs passed it unanimously.

"The laws of the Kingdom were carefully revised and published. In comparison with the past the progress of the nation was now rapid. The liberal policy of other nations, and whatever of their forms could with propriety be here transplanted, were embodied in the new statutes, but on a scale commensurate with the feebleness of youth of the people. The penal code was greatly improved; primary and courts of appeal established; the jury system adopted. Provision was made for the more regular enforcement of debt—transmission of property, property in trust, interest in accounts, in short sufficient was done greatly to benefit the position of natives and foreigners. Taxation was rendered more equal and lighter. Encouragement was proffered to industry and to the increase of population. An enlightened public school system was organized. Their laws, imperfect as they may seem to the critical eyes of a superior civilization, were yet in advance of the people. But wherever they were allowed to operate fairly and systematically much good was effected, and they served to prepare the way for more important changes.


"The peopie were thoroughly convinced that the immunity once claimed by chiefs for crimes of their own was at an end by an impartial trial by jury of one of that class in 1840 for the murder of his wife. He, with an accomplice, were both brought in guilty, and suffered the full penalty of the law, death by hanging. The foreigners also began to see that there was some virtue in the courts by a fine imposed upon the English consul for riotous conduct"

"On his way to England Mr. Charlton had fallen in with Lord George Paulet, commanding H. B. M. frigate Carysfort, and by his representations interested his lordship in his views. Simpson had also sent dispatches to the coast of Mexico, which induced Rear-Admiral Thomas to order the Carysfort to Honolulu for the purpose of inquiring into the matter. She arrived on the 10th of February, 1843, before the sale of Charlton's property had taken place. Simpson immediately went on board to concert measures with Lord George, who, from his entire acquiescence in his plans, appears to have been wholly won over at this interview to sustain them. The authorities on shore suspected there was no friendly feeling from the withholding the usual salutes. Mr. Judd, on behalf of the Government, made an official call on board, but was informed he could not be received. Visits from the French and United States consuls were similarly declined. Capt. Paulet addressed the governor, informing him that he wished to confer with the King, who was then absent.

"The King arrived from Maui on the 16th, and on the next day received the following letter and demands from Lord George Paulet:

" ' Oahu, 17th February, 1843.

" 'SlR: In answer to your letter of this day's date, which I have too good an opinion of Your Majesty to allow me to believe ever emanated from yourself, but from your ill-advisers, I have to state that I shall hold no communication whatever with Dr. G. P. Judd, who, it has been satisfactorily proved to me, has been the Punic mover in the unlawful proceedings of your Government against British subjects.

" 'As you have refused me a personal interview I inclose you the demands which I consider it my duty to make upon your Government, with which I demand a compliance at or before 4 o'clock p.m. to-morrow, Saturday; otherwise I shall be obliged to take immediate coercive steps to obtain these measures for my countrymen.

" ' I have the honor to be, your Majesty's most obedient, humble servant,

" 'Captain.

" 'His Majesty KAMEHAMEHA III.

" ' Demands made by the Right Honorable Lord George Paulet, captain, royal navy, commanding H.B.M's. ship Carysfort, upon the King of the Sandwich Islands.

" 'First. The immediate removal, by public advertisement, written in the native and English languages, and signed by the governor of this island and F. W. Thompson, of the attachment placed upon Mr. Charlton's property, the restoration of the land taken by Government for its own use, and really appertaining to Mr. Charlton; and reparation or the heavy loss to which Mr. Charlton's representatives have been


exposed by the oppressive and unjust proceedings of the Sandwich Islands Government.

" 'Second. The immediate acknowledgment of the right of Mr. Simpson to perform the functions delegated to him by Mr. Charlton, namely, those of Her Britannic Majesty's acting consul, until Her Majesty's pleasure be known upon the reasonableness of your objections to him. The acknowledgment of that right and the reparation for the insult offered to Her Majesty, through her acting representative, to be made by a public reception of his commission and the saluting the British flag with twenty-one guns, which number will be returned by Her Britannic Majesty's ship under my command.

" 'Third. A guaranty that no British subject shall in future be subjected to imprisonment in fetters, unless he is accused of a crime which, by the laws of England, would be considered felony.

" 'Fourth. The compliance with a written promise given by King Kamehameha to Capt. Jones, of Her Britannic Majesty's ship Curocoa, that a new and fair trial would be granted in a case brought by Henry Skinner, which promise has been evaded.

" 'Fifth. The immediate adoption of firm steps to arrange the matters in dispute between British subjects and natives of the country, or others residing here, by referring these cases to juries, one-half of whom shall be British subjects, approved by the consul, and all of whom shall declare on oath their freedom from prejudgment upon or interest in the cases brought before them.

" 'Sixth. A direct communication between His Majesty, Kamehameha, and Her Britannic Majesty's acting consul for the immediate settlement of all cases of grievances and complaint on the part of British subjects against the Sandwich Island Government.

" 'Dated on board Her Britannic Majesty's ship Carysfort, at Oahu, this 17th day of February, 1843.

"' Captain'

"Capt. Long, of the U.S.S. Boston, then in port, was informed, by letter, at midnight, of the anticipated attack of the British commander. In the morning the Carysfort was cleared for action, springs put on her cables, and her battery brought to bear upon the town. The English families embarked for security on board a brig in the outer roads. The Americans and other foreigners, having but short notice, placed their funds and papers on board the Boston and other vessels, intending to retreat to them with their families in case of actual hostilities. The town was in a state of great excitement. The dispositions of the chiefs were uncertain, and it was feared that the rabble, taking advantage of the confusion, might pillage the place. Excited by the gross injustice of the demands, the first impulse of the King and his council, in which they were sustained by the indignant feeling of the entire foreign population excepting the few who sided with Simpson, were for energetic measures. Arms were procured and bodies of men began to assemble.

"The common natives, unconscious of the fatal effects of disciplined gunnery, ardently desired to fight the ship. Some supposed they might overpower her crew by numbers in boarding. But peaceful councils at last prevailed. It is in such emergencies that the real influence of the missionaries becomes apparent. The natural desire of chiefs and foreigners was to resist at all hazards; but the entire indoctrination of the mission, animated by the peaceful principles of the gospel, had been of that nature that depends more upon the sword of the


spirit than the arm of flesh. Desirous of avoiding the unhappy consequences of strife and bloodshed, and relying, through providence, on the justice of the nation's cause, and the magnanimity of the Queen of Great Britain, they counseled peace. Shortly before the hour of commencing hostilities had arrived, the King dispatched a letter to the Carysport, informing Lord George Paulet that he yielded to his demands, under protest, and had appointed Sir George Simpson and William Richards as his commissioners to the court of Great Britain to settle the pending difficulties.

"His Majesty appointed February 20 at 11 o'clock a. m., to receive Lord George and the vice-consul. On the same day that the King notified Lord of his acquiescence to his demands, in conjunction with the premier he protested against his acts in these words:

" 'We, Kamehameha III, King of all the Sandwich Islands, and Kekauluohi, premier thereof, in accordance with the laws of nations and the rights of all aggrieved sovereigns and individuals, do hereby enter our solemn act of protest before God, the world, and before the Government of Her Most Gracious Majesty Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland:

" 'Against the Right Hon. Lord George Paulet, captain of Her British Majesty's ship Carysfort, now lying in the harbor of Honolulu, for all losses and damages which may accrue to us and to the citizens of other countries residing under our dominion and sovereignty, in consequence of the unjust demands made upon us this day by the said Right Hon. Lord George Paulet, enforced by a threat of coercive measures and an attack upon our town of Honolulu in case of noncompliance with the same within a period of nineteen hours, thereby interfering with our laws, endangering the good order of society, and requiring of us what no power has a right to exact of another with whom they are on terms of peace and amity.

" 'And we do solemnly protest and declare that we, the sovereign authority of these islands, are injured, grieved, abused, and damaged by this act of the said Right Hon. Lord George Paulet, and we hereby enter our solemn appeal unto the Government of Her Most Gracious Majesty, represented by him, for redress, for justification, and for repayment of all said losses, damages, and payments which may in consequence accrue unto us, or unto the citizens of other countries living under our jurisdiction.'

" 'On the 20th the King and premier visited the Carysfort and were received with royal honors. This courtesy, however, was but a prelude to a further series of demands rendered necessary to accomplish Simpson's aim, by the unexpected compliance of the King with the first. These were brought forward at an interview on the following day. The total amount demanded in money was $117,330.89. The character of these claims, and the object of the parties, may be gathered from a brief notice of the first brought forward. This was in favor of a Mr. Skinner, a connection of Mr. Charlton's. Indemnification to the amount of $3,000 was demanded for him on the alleged ground of having lost the interest and profits on $10,000 unemployed for four months, which he had reserved to purchase the property of Mr. Charlton, if sold on execution. The arrival of the Carysfoot had stopped the sale, and he had lost the opportunity of thus employing his funds.' (pp. 161, 162, and 163.)

" '24th.—A meeting having been arranged for 10 o'clock a. m., the King requested me to visit Lord George and say to him that he could bear this course no longer; he would give up and let them do as they


pleaded, etc. I accordingly met Lord George and Simpson in the street, coming to the meeting; said I had a message from the King, that he was sick. I went with them to the consular office, where I was left alone with Simpson. I said, the King feels himself oppressed, broken down, ruined, and, to use his own expression, a dead man; that he had been up all night and was sick; that he had determined to give up; that if he, Simpson, persisted in his present course ruin would follow; that the King could not undo by his own act the action of the courts and enforce these claims without time to modify the laws. I begged him to desist and give time to modify the laws and act with consistency. He would allow juries to be composed of half English in case their interests were concerned.

" 'The Dominis case had been disposed of according to the King's written promise to Capt. Jones. Moreover, since that time, the parties had settled by amicable arbitration. That to require all the late decisions of the legally organized courts to be set aside by the act of the King would be illegal and oppressive on the part of Mr. Simpson, and decidedly oppressive on the part of the King, and would justly involve him both with Americans and French, etc. Simpson replied that the English had been treated harshly, and consequently the Government must suffer. His course could not be altered.

" 'Went with Lord George and Simpson to the council; acted as spokesman. Reiterated the above, and added the King was determined to hold out no longer; do what you like, take the islands, but do not force him to acts of injustice; it would be cruel in the extreme, better take all. Lord George replied that his demands were not unjust; he acted on the best information and testimony. I said, I know that you think so but I assure you that such is not the opinion of the Government. The King remarked that he did not think that his Government had done wrong. I said, we must be heard; your information is incorrect; we appeal to Great Britain; take the islands, we will yet have justice. Lord George replied that he did not come to take the islands. I said, you had better do it than pursue these subjects further in this manner. He or Simpson said that they could only act on a request of the King, and it must be in writing. Said I, let all proceedings be stopped; let the Government have time to reflect, and I think they will come to the conclusion that it is better for you to take the Government of the islands than to go any further. But we must have time; you drive the King to distraction, and I fear that he will cede the islands to France, as he has been invited to do. Simpson said he would not allow much delay. Lord George said, two or three days and no more. Simpson said, to-morrow noon, and if it was not done, he should expect the Dominis case to be tried on Saturday. I observed that the time was too short; Monday then at the furthest. We went into certain explanations as to manner of doing the thing, and I wrote down in pencil the following:

" 'In consequence of the difficulties in which the Sandwich Islands are involved, and the impossibility of complying with the demands made by Her Britannic Majesty's representative in the form in which they are presented, we cede [the Government of] our islands to Lord George Paulet, etc., for the time being, subject to any arrangements that may have been entered into with the Government of Great Britain, and until intelligence shall have been received, and in case no arrangement shall have been made previous to date, subject to the decision of Her Majesty's Government on conference with the ministers of the Sandwich Islands Government, after a full report of our affairs shall have


been represented to Great Britain; and in case the ministers are rejected by Her Britannic Majesty, then subject to any arrangements which may be entered into.

" 'Simpson took the paper and walked in the veranda with Lord George, and, returning, said that would do; he would make a copy with very few verbal alterations.

" 'It was arranged that the chiefs should have an opportunity to consider these things, and an answer to be given to-morrow noon. Lord George and Simpson left. King and Auhea sat with astonishment and misery. Discussed awhile in council, when I left them in order to take some refreshment. When I returned I found them anxious to gain further information. The subject of ceding to France and the United States was a ray of hope which seemed to gleam across their dark path, but they foresaw that under such circumstances they would still have this fury—Simpson—to deal with until the French took possession, and he would doubtless involve them in more trouble, and their cause become too bad to admit of justification. France is still acting a hostile part towards them. Charlton and Simpson are their enemies, but England is their friend.

" 'To England they look up with the most filial affections. France is picking a quarrel with them now, and complaints are now in existence which will make more trouble. If the claims of Simpson are allowed the laws will suffer and the nation be weakened so much that France will leave them nothing. England can defend them from France, and to cede to France would be to say England had no right here, which is to the Government more than doubtful, reckoning right as the nations do. This might be considered an act of treachery.

" 'May be that their independence is secured already. If so, a forcible possession on the part of either would annul it. A cession would not if made with provisos.

" 'In the evening I went for Lord George, who, together with Simpson and Dr. Rooke, came. Regulated a few points respecting the course he should pursue in case he took possession. Informed them that we should take every possible step to justify the Government and get back the islands, and he demanded a pledge that such exertions be not considered an act of hostility to them.

" 'It was agreed that a decision should be made by 12 o'clock on the 25th. Lord George went away. Every possible view of the case was taken up by the council, and the result seemed to be to give up the islands on the terms proposed.

" '25th. The King sent for me before breakfast. Wished to know what I thought of the old proposition of ceding to France and the United States. I said I feared it would involve the Government in great trouble. The French admiral would soon be here and take possession, which would excite hostility between Catholics and Protestants; meanwhile Simpson would continue his course of conduct, and the difficulties would become inextricable. Give yourself into the arms of Great Britain, trust to the generosity of that great and good nation, you may have the benefit of the intervention of France for the adjustment of difficulties and the security of your independence. Let them take possession, and then you can represent your case in full. Lord George called. I informed him that the matter was nearly decided. One of the propositions that came from me was waived, viz, that a commission be appointed to adjust the claims of British subjects.

" 'Dudoit called and many others. Every argument used to induce the King to cede to France and the United States. Sat down to put


the documents into form. The King proposed to make a speech. I said they could make that out among themselves, which they did. Deed of cession being ready, the chiefs came in and it was read. Sorrow and distress marked every countenance. I was asked to pray. During prayer sighs suppressed were often heard. I committed the case to God, imploring His blessing on the step about to be taken as the only peaceful alternative for the nation, etc. When I rose not an individual left his knees for a full minute, and then I saw that tears had come to their relief. They sat in silence for a moment when the King arose, and with a firm step seized a pen and subscribed his name. "Let it go," said he, "if I get help I get it, if not, let it go; I can do no more." The premier then added her signature.' (Extract from a journal kept by Mr. Judd, who was minister of the King to conduct negotiations with Lord George Paulet, pp. 164, 165, and 166.)

"Having decided upon a provisional cession of his dominions to Great Britain, the King announced the event to his subjects in a touching proclamation:

" ' Where are you, chiefs, people, and commons from my ancestors, and people from foreign lands?

" ' Hear ye! I make known to you that I am in perplexity by reason of difficulties into which I have been brought without cause; therefore, I have given away the life of our land, hear ye! But my rule over you, my people, and your privileges, will continue, for I have hope that the life of the land will be restored when my conduct is justified.

" 'Done at Honolulu, Oahu, this 25th day of February, 1843.


"On the 28th of November, the Hawaiian commissioners obtained from the governments of France and England a joint declaration to the effect that—

" 'Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and His Majesty the King of the French, taking into consideration the existence in the Sandwich Islands of a government capable of providing for the regularity of its relations with foreign nations, have thought it right to engage reciprocally to consider the Sandwich Islands as an independent state, and never to take possession, neither directly nor under the title of protectorate, nor under any other form, of any part of the territory of which they are composed.

" 'The undersigned, Her Majesty's principal secretary of state for foreign affairs, and the ambassador extraordinary of His Majesty the King of the French at the court of London, being furnished with the necessary powers, hereby declare in consequence that their said majesties take reciprocally that engagement.

" 'In witness whereof the undersigned have signed the present declaration, and have affixed thereto the seal of their arms.

"' Done in duplicate, at London, the 28th day of November, in the year of our Lord 1843.

" 'ST. AULAIRE. [L.S.],

"This solemn engagement on the part of these two powers was the flnal act by which the Kingdom of Hawaii was admitted within the pale of eivilized nations."

"No measure tends more to consolidate and render a nation prosperous


and respectable than a sound and judicious code of laws. The chiefs were early aware of their deficiency, and as soon as their new legislative forms came into operation proposed to execute the task; under any circumstances a difficult one; but in those of their Kingdom doubly so from the mixed population, foreign and native, that they were called to govern. The first volume of statute laws was issued in 1846.

"The departments are subdivided into numerous bureaus, comprising the duties enumerated under their several heads. By this system the business of government and its machinery have become methodized on a simple and not expensive scale, for although the subdivisions are numerous, yet one clerk suffices for many. The judiciary act and the criminal code, on the new basis, are not yet completed. As in every other step forward which the Hawaiian nation has taken, unwarrantable abuse and unreasonable cavil have been showered upon it for this, chiefly upon the specious pretense that the system was too cumbersome and altogether beyond its growth. An impartial examination will doubtless detect points which can be amended with benefit; this is to be expected, and the intention of the Legislature is rather experimentative than final, to feel their way as it were to a code simple and effective. But to do this experience must be acquired in legislation and the practical operation of laws. In the transition of the nation, with its rapid growth from foreign sources, it has been found that there has been felt a want rather than an overplus of system. The machinery of government, being of a liberal and constitutional character, provides in itself for checks on excess and remedies for evils. If 'let alone' by foreign powers, there is ground for the belief that Hawaiian legislation will in no whit in character be behind that of numerous new countries, offshoots of the old, now budding into existence on the shores of the Pacific.

"The executive government was constructed as follows:

" 'His Majesty King Kamehameha III.

" ' Cabinet council created October 29, 1845.—His highness, Keoni Ana,* premier and minister of the interior; R.C. Wyllie, minister foreign affairs; G. P. Judd, minister of finance; William Richards, minister of instruction; John Ricord, attorney-general.

" ' Nobles.—M. Kehauonohi; A.Keliiahonui, chamberlain; Keoni Ana, premier; Alapai; A. Paki, judge of supreme court; Konia; I. Kaeo, judge of supreme court; Iona, judge of supreme court; Paulo Kanoa; Namauu; M. Kekuanaoa, governor of Oahu; W. P. Leleiohoku, governor of Hawaii; Ruta; Keohokalole; C. Kanaina, judge of supreme court; Ioane li, guardian of young chiefs; Iona Piikoi; Beniki Namakeha; K. Kapaakea; James Young Kanehoa,† governor of Maui.'

" The governers are honorary members of the privy council. "Besides the 4 cabinet officers of foreign birth, there are 5 Americans and 4 Englishmen, naturalized subjects, commissioned as judges in foreign cases, collectors, director of Government press, heads of bureaus, etc. In addition to these are a number of clerks transiently employed, and officers connected with the several departments, who depend upon fees for their recompense. " In no one respect have the Government shown more laudable zeal than in educating the young chiefs, who, by birth, are destined to fill important posts. For the purpose of bestowing upon them a solid and

* Son of Mr. Young, Kamehameha's favorite.

† Son of Kamehameha's favorite, Mr. Young, of the Elenora, who landed in 1790 and died in 1835 at the advanced age of 93 years, highly respected by all classes.


practical education in the English language, embracing not only the usual studies pursued in the better class of seminaries in the United States, but to engraft in their minds the habits, thoughts, moral and domestic education which children of their age and circumstances receive in civilized countries, in 1839 they were taken from their native parents and out of the sphere of mere Hawaiian influences and incorporated into a boarding school, under the charge of Mr. and Mrs. Cooke, teachers of the American mission. During the seven years the school has been established their progress has been rapid, and they are now versed in the common branches of an English education, besides being practically acquainted with the tastes, household economy, and habits of refined domestic life. The annual expense of the school is now about $5,000. The number of scholars 15.

" 'Moses Kaikioewa, son of Kekuanaoa and Kinau, born July 20. 1829, expectant governor of Kauai.

" 'Lota Kamehameha, son of Kekuanaoa and Kinau, born December 11, 1830; expectant governor of Maui.

" 'Alexander Liholiho, son of Kehuanaoa and Kinau, born February 9,1834, heir apparant, by adoption, of the King.

" 'Victoria Kamamalu, daughter of Kehuanaoa and Kinau, born November 1, 1838, premier by birth.

" 'William C. Lunalilo, son of Kanaina and Kehauluohi, born January 1, 1835.

" 'Bernice Pauahi, daughter of Paki and Konia, born December 19, 1831.

" 'Jane Loeau, daughter of Kalaniulumokee and Liliha, born 1828.

" 'Elizabeth Kekaniau, daughter of Laanui, born September 11,1834.

" 'Emma Rooke, daughter of Fanny Young,* born January 2, 1830.

" 'Peter Young Kaeo, son of Kaeo and Lahilahi,* born March 4,1830.

" 'James Kaliokalani, son of Paakea and Keohokalole, born May 29, 1835.

" 'David Kalakaua, son of Paakea and Keohokalole, born November 16, 1836.

" 'Lydia Makaeha, daughter of Paakea and Keohokalole, born September 2, 1838.

" 'Mary Paaaina.

" 'Kinau Pitt, son of W. Pitt Kalaimokee.'

"The rapid progress of the Hawaiian group in commercial importance is best illustrated by their commercial statistics both before the organization of their present Government and since, when under improved auspices their value has more rapidly developed. The facilities which they afforded the American vessels engaged in the lucrative Northwest fur trade, to which was soon added the equally profitable one of sandal wood, gave them such good repute that previous to 1820 the hardy whale fishers resorted to them for recruits and men. As early as 1823, from 40 to 60 whale ships, mostly American, were to be seen in the harbor of Honolulu at one time.

"From January, 1836, to December 31, 1841, 358 vessels belonging to the United States, of which four fifths were whalers, touched at Honolulu; an average of 713/5 annually, besides 17 men-of-war. Of English vessels during the same period there were 82 and 9 men-of-war. Those of France and other nations numbered not over 20. The average annual imports for those years were to the value of $365,854, one-half of which were American goods, one-quarter Chinese and Californian,

* Daughters of John Young.

S. Doc. 231, pt 6----33


and the remainder from England, Mexico, Chile, and other sources.

"Four newspapers in the Hawaiian tongue have been sustained by the missionaries. The first, Lama Hawaii, was commenced in 1833. The present Ka Elele, besides much religious matter, gives a summary of general news, publishes Government notices, and affords scope for the literary efforts of the natives themselves, some of whom manifest respectable powers of thought and composition.

"It is computed that 70,000 of the population have learned to read and 65,444,000 printed pages have been issued from the mission press, embracing, among other works, two complete editions, of 10,000 each, of the Holy Scriptures, three of the New Testament, amounting to 30,000 copies, Worcesters Sacred Geography, Universal Geography, Geographical Questions, Scripture Chronology and History, Animals of the Earth, with a chart. History of Beasts, Hawaiian History, Church History, Mathematics, embracing Geometry, Trigonometry, Mensuration, Surveying and Navigation, Colburn's Algebra, Anatomy, Wayland's Moral Philosophy, Colburn's Intellectual Arithmetic, Tract on Astronomy, Maps of Universal Geography, and Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress.

"The works published have been altogether of a devotional or educational class. More interest would have been awakened could some others of a less grave and more historic character have been included."

"A moral sentiment, founded more upon a classification of certain actions, either as evil or as good, and their attendant punishments or rewards than upon any definite ideas of sin and virtue considered in their relations to moral purity and the love of the Father, pervades the nation. With the more enlightened something superior to this prevails. Consequently, as in older Christianized communities, a man enjoys respect in proportion to his moral qualifications. Vice is condemned and virtue applauded. Many, of course, are to be found more fond of a good name than of the means necessary for its attainment. Publicly they are one being, privately another.

"The very fact of the necessity of the deception shows a great advancement in moral sentiment since the days of Liholiho, and instead of being considered a reproach to the missionaries should be hailed as a favorable symptom of their labors, the dawn of further improvement. In humanity, care for the sick and aged, their domestic relations, honesty, temperance, and systematic industry there has been great advancement. From a warlike, treacherous, and cruel people they have become mild, tractable, and desirous of knowledge. The intelligent observer will find much in their present character to gratify him and more to surprise when he contrasts them with what they were but a score of years since. But he who goes among them, his imagination picturing a nation changed from brutal savages, by the spirit of God, to guileless Christians, worshiping Jehovah in all the innocence and strength of a first love, their family altars emblems of purity and happiness, their congregations simple and sincere, and their dispositions and deportment refined to the high standard of Christian excellence in his own country, will be sadly disappointed.

"It is still difficult to make the natives understand the nature of truth. They have been so accustomed, from their earliest years, to habits of deception, that with very many, perhaps the majority, it may be doubted whether any other sensation arises from the detection of a falsehood than mortification at being discovered. In no other point


are they more obtuse, but this moral bluntness is gradually wearing away. Licentiousness is a chief vice of the nation; not that they are much worse in this respect than nations generally residing within the tropics, but it continues to be their most prominent trait. A few years ago, in its protean forms, it was common to all, and as undisguised as the light of day. Now it hides its head, and seeks a new garment to conceal its foul markings. The following table of crime for Oahu will serve to show the proportion of other offenses to those of sensuality. It is taken from the Kuma Hawaii, of January 16,1839, a native paper, but the period embraced in the report is not given. And it should be recollected that but a small proportion of the latter offenses are ever detected or exposed. A number of foreigners are embraced in the list, chiefly for riot, mutiny, and desertion.








False witness














"Another table of purely native cases for Honolulu, taken from the records of the 'inferior court' from January 1, 1846, to December 4, of the same year, gives the following striking result:





Adultery, fornication












Desecration of Sabbath




Reviling language




Heathenish practices




Assault and battery








Furious riding








Interference with police




Street walking








Passing false coin




Desertion of husband








"The above table shows a conviction of 427 cases out of a population of about 9,000. To these should be added 121 others, tried before the police court, making in all rather more than 600 cases for 1846. Of the 121, 38 were for licentiousness and 43 for stealing. But few occur for fighting, the Hawaiians being a very peaceable people. A great deal of petty thieving exists, particularly towards foreigners to steal from whom is not viewed so disreputable as from themselves. The standard of morality, it will be seen, is low, particularly among the men; but


crimes are rare. There have been but five executions for three murders for ten years.

"It is incontrovertible that there yet exists in the nation a large body of people who are equally disposed to religious rites, or to acts of a different character, as may be most accordant to the taste of those whom they wish to gratify. Another generation must arise, with better homes and more civil and religious advantages, before the habits of the old are sufficiently eradicated. While evidence for the more favorable view of missionary labor, to a partial investigator, appears conclusive, ample grounds for the opposite opinion exists. The truth lies in neither extreme. The friends of humanity have just cause to be grateful that so much has been accomplished, and should labor earnestly that the remaining dark spots may be wholly effaced."

"The government of the Kingdom is essentially Christian. Founded upon missionary teaching, it derives its principles and objects from gospel ethics. Under its influence, the despotism of the chiefs over life and property has been abolished and the nation invited to lay hold of its rights in both. Laws favorable to virtue, industry, and increase of population have been enacted. Families having 3 children of their own are freed from taxation; those having more are rewarded by gifts of lands. The natives are encouraged to secure allodial titles by a remission of all taxes on such for twenty years. Taxation is lightened and made stimulative to honest industry. The present laws are equitable and protective. Justice is fairly administered and the soundest principles of classical and modern law have become the professed guides of the courts.

"Commerce has brought among the nation many foreigners, in every way an advantage to the morals and enterprise of the natives. Scattered throughout the group they provide them, almost at the very doors of their huts, with ample supplies of foreign goods of all descriptions at fair prices, receiving in return the avails of native labor. They have furnished them with cattle and the vegetable products of other countries, and introduced the arts, trades, and professions of civilized life. The examples and encouragements of civilized households are thus brought to their very thresholds. They have given a value to the time of the native by creating a demand for his labor, and have equally bestowed a value to his hitherto unproductive lands by practically developing the hidden wealth of the soil.

"The most indifferent industry is sure of ample reward. Vice, as in other lands, has no apology for an existence here on the plea of a superabundance of labor in the honest branches of livelihood. Not a man need be a thief from necessity, nor a woman unchaste from want. Lands everywhere lie groaning in wild luxuriance, crying out for hands to till them. The handicraft of women, and even the services of children are in constant demand. Commerce has raised the remuneration of the former and the wages of the laborers to the highest rate of stimulative reward.

"The policy of the Government is essentially protective to the Hawaiian race, to the intent to fully solve the question of their capability of civilization. The white advisers of the King, having this end practically in view, fail to meet the more enlarged views and desires of white residents, who look upon the final extermination or loss of the native race and dynasty as their destiny, and consequently desire to see the fullest encouragement offered for the ingress and permanent settlement of a foreign population and capital. While


these would urge the Government on with a rapidity commensurate with Anglo-Saxon spirit and intelligence, the native race by their slowness of apprehension and fears for their security in case the full torrent of civilized emigration and enterprise is let in unrestrained upon them, hold them back. On the one hand the Government is as unable fully to satisfy the cravings of the whites to advance, as it is to bring the native mind to a clear appreciation and faithful carrying out of the measures best adapted to benefit it and render it more capable of assimilating with the superior intelligence of Anglo-Saxon intellect. They steadily endeavor to preserve the Hawaiian race; to christianize and civilize them; and to this end they invite a limited cooperation of foreign aid, enough to innoculate the nation with courage and enterprise, without deluging it in a torrent which in their present condition they would inevitably fail to bear up against. In this way a just middle course is adopted, which it would seem from past experience tends to build up a mixed Hawaiian and foreign race, civilized, moral, and industrious, and capable of taking an elevated position in the ranks of minor nations."

XVII. Also the following extracts from the honolulu directory and historical sketch of the hawaiian or sandwich islands, by c. c. bennett, including a chronological table of notable events connected with hawaiian history.

"1736. Kamehameha I born at Kokoiki, Kohala.

"1740. The King of Oahu, on the passage to Molokai, sees a ship.

"1768. Kaahumanu born.

"1775. Kaahumanu becomes the wife of Kamehameha I.

"1779. January 17 Capt. Cook anchored in the bay of Kealakekua, Hawaii.

"February 14 Capt. Cook was slain at Kaawaloa, Hawaii.

"1782. April, Kalaniopuu died, leaving his Kingdom (western Hawaii), to Kiwalao, who was his own son.

"July, the battle named Mokuahae, i. e., the fight of Kamehameha with Kiwalao and his party at Keomo, Hawaii, Kamehameha triumphed, Kiwalao was slain, and Keoua became King of Kau and Puna.

"Keawemauhili reigns as King at Hilo, Hawaii.

"Keaulumoku composed the mele Haui Ka Lani, or a prophecy of the overthrow of Hawaii by Kamehameha.

"1790 first American ship (Eleanor, Capt. Metcalf), visited the islands.

"Keona was taken prisoner by Kamehameha at Koapapaa, Hamakua, Hawaii, and Kamehameha thus became sole King of the whole island.

"John Young and Isaac Davis became attached to Kamehameha.

"1791. In this year the battle of Nuuanu was fought, in which Kalanikupule, son of Kahekili, King of Maui and Oahu, was slain, and thus Maui, Molokai, Lanai, and Oahu fell into the hands of Kamehameha.

"1792. March 3, Capt. Vancouver first visited the islands, and left cattle, sheep, etc.

"The Daedalus, store ship, visited Waimea, Oahu; a massacre.

"1793. March 12, Vancouver anchored at Lahaina.

"1794. December, first discovery of Honolulu Harbor. Entered by Jackal and Prince Leboo, American.

"Kekuanaoa born.

"1795. January 12, last visit of Vancouver.

" Daedalus visits Niihau; massacre. January 1, murder of captains.

"1797. Liholiho (Kamehameha II) was born.

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