Kingdom of Hawaii Constitution of 1839
The first constitution, granted by King Kamehameha III, proclaimed the rights of the people, ensuring equal protection for both the people and the chiefs. Written by Kamehameha III and the Chiefs, and enacted on June 7, 1839; published as He Kumukanawai a me ke Kanawai Ho'oponopono Waiwai no ko Hawai'i Nei Pae 'Aina, Honolulu, 1839, and in English in The Hawaiian Spectator, Vol. II, No. 3, Honolulu, July 1839. Forbes 1147 (II:211-213) and 1099 (II:181-183).
THE HAWAIIAN SPECTATOR.
Conducted by AN ASSOCIATION OF GENTLEMEN.
VOLUME II. 1839.
PRINTED FOR THE PROPRIETORS.
HONOLULU, O'AHU, SANDWICH ISLANDS.
(Translation of the Constitution of Our Hawaiian Islands.)
1. God hath made of one blood all nations of men, to dwell on the face of the earth in unity and blessedness. God has also bestowed certain rights alike on all men, and all chiefs and all people of all lands.
2. These are some of the rights which he has given alike to every man and every chief, life, limb, liberty, the labor of his hands and productions of his mind.
3. God has also established governments and rule for the purposes of peace, but in making laws for a nation it is by no means proper to enact laws for the protection of rulers only, without also providing protection for their subjects; neither is it proper to enact laws to enrich the chiefs only, without regard to the enriching of their subjects also; and hereafter, there shall by no means be any law enacted which is inconsistent with what is above expressed, neither shall any tax be assessed, nor any service or labor required of any man in a manner at variance with the above sentiments.
4. These sentiments are hereby proclaimed for the purpose of protecting alike, both the people and the chiefs of all these islands, that no chief may be able to oppress any subject, but that chiefs and people may enjoy the same protection under one and the same law.
5. Protection is hereby secured to the persons of all the people, together with their lands, their building lots and all their property and nothing whatever shall be taken from any individual, except by express provision of the laws. Whatever chief shall perseveringly act in violation of this Constitution, shall no longer remain a chief of the Sandwich Islands, and the same shall be true of the governors, officers and all land agents.
HE KUMU KANAWAI, A ME KE KANAWAI HOOPONOPONO WAIWAI, NO KO HAWAII NEI PAE AINA.
NA KAMEHAMEHA III I KAU.
KUMU KANAWAI, NO KO HAWAII NEI PAE AINA.
1. Ua hana mai ke Akua i na lahuikanaka a pau i ke koko hookahi, e noho like lakou ma ka honua nei me ke kuikahi, a me ka pomaikai. Ua haawi mai no ke Akua i kekahi mau waiwai like, no na kanaka a pau, me naÕlii a pau o na aina a pau loa.
2. Eia kekahi mau waiwai ana i haawi like mai ai i kela kanaka keia kanaka, i kela alii keia alii; o ke ola, o na lala o ke kino; o ka noho hoopaa ole ia, a me ke keakea ole ia, o na mea a kona lima i hanaÕi, a me na mea a kona manao i hooponopono ai.
3. Na ke Akua mai no hoi ka oihana alii, a me ka noho alii ana i mea e malu ai; aka, i ka hana ana i na kanawai o ka aina, aole pono e hanaia kekahi kanawai hoomalu alii wale no, a hoomalu ole i na makaainana. Aole hoi e pono ke kau i ke kanawai hoowaiwai i naÕlii wale no, a waiwai ole na makaainana; a mahope aku nei, aole loa e kauia kekahi kanawai ku e i keia mau olelo i oleloia maluna, aole hoi e auhau wale ia, aole e hookauwaia, aole e hoohana wale ia kekahi kanaka ma ke ano ku e i ua mau olelo la.
4. Nolaila, e hoolahaia aku ai keia olelo, i mea hoomalu like i na kanaka a pau a me naÕlii a pau o keia pae aina; i keakea ole ai kekahi alii i kekahi o na makaainana, i like hoi ka malu o naÕlii, a me na kanaka malalo o ke kanawai hookahi.
5. Ua hoomaluia ke kino o na kanaka a pau, a me ko lakou aina, a me ko lakou mau pahale, a me ko lakou waiwai a pau; aole hoi e laweia kekahi mea, ke olelo ole ia kela mea ma ke kanawai. O ke alii e hana i kekahi mea ku e i keia Kumu kanawai, e pau kona noho alii ana ma keia pae aina o Hawaii nei, ke hoomau ia malaila, pela na kiaaina, a me na luna a me na konohiki a pau.