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and respectable than a sound and judicious code of laws. The chiefs were early aware of their deficiency, and as soon as their new legislative forms came into operation proposed to execute the task; under any circumstances a difficult one; but in those of their Kingdom doubly so from the mixed population, foreign and native, that they were called to govern. The first volume of statute laws was issued in 1846.

"The departments are subdivided into numerous bureaus, comprising the duties enumerated under their several heads. By this system the business of government and its machinery have become methodized on a simple and not expensive scale, for although the subdivisions are numerous, yet one clerk suffices for many. The judiciary act and the criminal code, on the new basis, are not yet completed. As in every other step forward which the Hawaiian nation has taken, unwarrantable abuse and unreasonable cavil have been showered upon it for this, chiefly upon the specious pretense that the system was too cumbersome and altogether beyond its growth. An impartial examination will doubtless detect points which can be amended with benefit; this is to be expected, and the intention of the Legislature is rather experimentative than final, to feel their way as it were to a code simple and effective. But to do this experience must be acquired in legislation and the practical operation of laws. In the transition of the nation, with its rapid growth from foreign sources, it has been found that there has been felt a want rather than an overplus of system. The machinery of government, being of a liberal and constitutional character, provides in itself for checks on excess and remedies for evils. If 'let alone' by foreign powers, there is ground for the belief that Hawaiian legislation will in no whit in character be behind that of numerous new countries, offshoots of the old, now budding into existence on the shores of the Pacific.

"The executive government was constructed as follows:

" 'His Majesty King Kamehameha III.

" ' Cabinet council created October 29, 1845.—His highness, Keoni Ana,* premier and minister of the interior; R.C. Wyllie, minister foreign affairs; G. P. Judd, minister of finance; William Richards, minister of instruction; John Ricord, attorney-general.

" ' Nobles.—M. Kehauonohi; A.Keliiahonui, chamberlain; Keoni Ana, premier; Alapai; A. Paki, judge of supreme court; Konia; I. Kaeo, judge of supreme court; Iona, judge of supreme court; Paulo Kanoa; Namauu; M. Kekuanaoa, governor of Oahu; W. P. Leleiohoku, governor of Hawaii; Ruta; Keohokalole; C. Kanaina, judge of supreme court; Ioane li, guardian of young chiefs; Iona Piikoi; Beniki Namakeha; K. Kapaakea; James Young Kanehoa,† governor of Maui.'

" The governers are honorary members of the privy council. "Besides the 4 cabinet officers of foreign birth, there are 5 Americans and 4 Englishmen, naturalized subjects, commissioned as judges in foreign cases, collectors, director of Government press, heads of bureaus, etc. In addition to these are a number of clerks transiently employed, and officers connected with the several departments, who depend upon fees for their recompense. " In no one respect have the Government shown more laudable zeal than in educating the young chiefs, who, by birth, are destined to fill important posts. For the purpose of bestowing upon them a solid and

* Son of Mr. Young, Kamehameha's favorite.

† Son of Kamehameha's favorite, Mr. Young, of the Elenora, who landed in 1790 and died in 1835 at the advanced age of 93 years, highly respected by all classes.


practical education in the English language, embracing not only the usual studies pursued in the better class of seminaries in the United States, but to engraft in their minds the habits, thoughts, moral and domestic education which children of their age and circumstances receive in civilized countries, in 1839 they were taken from their native parents and out of the sphere of mere Hawaiian influences and incorporated into a boarding school, under the charge of Mr. and Mrs. Cooke, teachers of the American mission. During the seven years the school has been established their progress has been rapid, and they are now versed in the common branches of an English education, besides being practically acquainted with the tastes, household economy, and habits of refined domestic life. The annual expense of the school is now about $5,000. The number of scholars 15.

" 'Moses Kaikioewa, son of Kekuanaoa and Kinau, born July 20. 1829, expectant governor of Kauai.

" 'Lota Kamehameha, son of Kekuanaoa and Kinau, born December 11, 1830; expectant governor of Maui.

" 'Alexander Liholiho, son of Kehuanaoa and Kinau, born February 9,1834, heir apparant, by adoption, of the King.

" 'Victoria Kamamalu, daughter of Kehuanaoa and Kinau, born November 1, 1838, premier by birth.

" 'William C. Lunalilo, son of Kanaina and Kehauluohi, born January 1, 1835.

" 'Bernice Pauahi, daughter of Paki and Konia, born December 19, 1831.

" 'Jane Loeau, daughter of Kalaniulumokee and Liliha, born 1828.

" 'Elizabeth Kekaniau, daughter of Laanui, born September 11,1834.

" 'Emma Rooke, daughter of Fanny Young,* born January 2, 1830.

" 'Peter Young Kaeo, son of Kaeo and Lahilahi,* born March 4,1830.

" 'James Kaliokalani, son of Paakea and Keohokalole, born May 29, 1835.

" 'David Kalakaua, son of Paakea and Keohokalole, born November 16, 1836.

" 'Lydia Makaeha, daughter of Paakea and Keohokalole, born September 2, 1838.

" 'Mary Paaaina.

" 'Kinau Pitt, son of W. Pitt Kalaimokee.'

"The rapid progress of the Hawaiian group in commercial importance is best illustrated by their commercial statistics both before the organization of their present Government and since, when under improved auspices their value has more rapidly developed. The facilities which they afforded the American vessels engaged in the lucrative Northwest fur trade, to which was soon added the equally profitable one of sandal wood, gave them such good repute that previous to 1820 the hardy whale fishers resorted to them for recruits and men. As early as 1823, from 40 to 60 whale ships, mostly American, were to be seen in the harbor of Honolulu at one time.

"From January, 1836, to December 31, 1841, 358 vessels belonging to the United States, of which four fifths were whalers, touched at Honolulu; an average of 713/5 annually, besides 17 men-of-war. Of English vessels during the same period there were 82 and 9 men-of-war. Those of France and other nations numbered not over 20. The average annual imports for those years were to the value of $365,854, one-half of which were American goods, one-quarter Chinese and Californian,

* Daughters of John Young.

S. Doc. 231, pt 6----33