crimes are rare. There have been but five executions for three murders for ten years.
"It is incontrovertible that there yet exists in the nation a large body of people who are equally disposed to religious rites, or to acts of a different character, as may be most accordant to the taste of those whom they wish to gratify. Another generation must arise, with better homes and more civil and religious advantages, before the habits of the old are sufficiently eradicated. While evidence for the more favorable view of missionary labor, to a partial investigator, appears conclusive, ample grounds for the opposite opinion exists. The truth lies in neither extreme. The friends of humanity have just cause to be grateful that so much has been accomplished, and should labor earnestly that the remaining dark spots may be wholly effaced."
"The government of the Kingdom is essentially Christian. Founded upon missionary teaching, it derives its principles and objects from gospel ethics. Under its influence, the despotism of the chiefs over life and property has been abolished and the nation invited to lay hold of its rights in both. Laws favorable to virtue, industry, and increase of population have been enacted. Families having 3 children of their own are freed from taxation; those having more are rewarded by gifts of lands. The natives are encouraged to secure allodial titles by a remission of all taxes on such for twenty years. Taxation is lightened and made stimulative to honest industry. The present laws are equitable and protective. Justice is fairly administered and the soundest principles of classical and modern law have become the professed guides of the courts.
"Commerce has brought among the nation many foreigners, in every way an advantage to the morals and enterprise of the natives. Scattered throughout the group they provide them, almost at the very doors of their huts, with ample supplies of foreign goods of all descriptions at fair prices, receiving in return the avails of native labor. They have furnished them with cattle and the vegetable products of other countries, and introduced the arts, trades, and professions of civilized life. The examples and encouragements of civilized households are thus brought to their very thresholds. They have given a value to the time of the native by creating a demand for his labor, and have equally bestowed a value to his hitherto unproductive lands by practically developing the hidden wealth of the soil.
"The most indifferent industry is sure of ample reward. Vice, as in other lands, has no apology for an existence here on the plea of a superabundance of labor in the honest branches of livelihood. Not a man need be a thief from necessity, nor a woman unchaste from want. Lands everywhere lie groaning in wild luxuriance, crying out for hands to till them. The handicraft of women, and even the services of children are in constant demand. Commerce has raised the remuneration of the former and the wages of the laborers to the highest rate of stimulative reward.
"The policy of the Government is essentially protective to the Hawaiian race, to the intent to fully solve the question of their capability of civilization. The white advisers of the King, having this end practically in view, fail to meet the more enlarged views and desires of white residents, who look upon the final extermination or loss of the native race and dynasty as their destiny, and consequently desire to see the fullest encouragement offered for the ingress and permanent settlement of a foreign population and capital. While
these would urge the Government on with a rapidity commensurate with Anglo-Saxon spirit and intelligence, the native race by their slowness of apprehension and fears for their security in case the full torrent of civilized emigration and enterprise is let in unrestrained upon them, hold them back. On the one hand the Government is as unable fully to satisfy the cravings of the whites to advance, as it is to bring the native mind to a clear appreciation and faithful carrying out of the measures best adapted to benefit it and render it more capable of assimilating with the superior intelligence of Anglo-Saxon intellect. They steadily endeavor to preserve the Hawaiian race; to christianize and civilize them; and to this end they invite a limited cooperation of foreign aid, enough to innoculate the nation with courage and enterprise, without deluging it in a torrent which in their present condition they would inevitably fail to bear up against. In this way a just middle course is adopted, which it would seem from past experience tends to build up a mixed Hawaiian and foreign race, civilized, moral, and industrious, and capable of taking an elevated position in the ranks of minor nations."
XVII. Also the following extracts from the honolulu directory and historical sketch of the hawaiian or sandwich islands, by c. c. bennett, including a chronological table of notable events connected with hawaiian history.
"1736. Kamehameha I born at Kokoiki, Kohala.
"1740. The King of Oahu, on the passage to Molokai, sees a ship.
"1768. Kaahumanu born.
"1775. Kaahumanu becomes the wife of Kamehameha I.
"1779. January 17 Capt. Cook anchored in the bay of Kealakekua, Hawaii.
"February 14 Capt. Cook was slain at Kaawaloa, Hawaii.
"1782. April, Kalaniopuu died, leaving his Kingdom (western Hawaii), to Kiwalao, who was his own son.
"July, the battle named Mokuahae, i. e., the fight of Kamehameha with Kiwalao and his party at Keomo, Hawaii, Kamehameha triumphed, Kiwalao was slain, and Keoua became King of Kau and Puna.
"Keawemauhili reigns as King at Hilo, Hawaii.
"Keaulumoku composed the mele Haui Ka Lani, or a prophecy of the overthrow of Hawaii by Kamehameha.
"1790 first American ship (Eleanor, Capt. Metcalf), visited the islands.
"Keona was taken prisoner by Kamehameha at Koapapaa, Hamakua, Hawaii, and Kamehameha thus became sole King of the whole island.
"John Young and Isaac Davis became attached to Kamehameha.
"1791. In this year the battle of Nuuanu was fought, in which Kalanikupule, son of Kahekili, King of Maui and Oahu, was slain, and thus Maui, Molokai, Lanai, and Oahu fell into the hands of Kamehameha.
"1792. March 3, Capt. Vancouver first visited the islands, and left cattle, sheep, etc.
"The Daedalus, store ship, visited Waimea, Oahu; a massacre.
"1793. March 12, Vancouver anchored at Lahaina.
"1794. December, first discovery of Honolulu Harbor. Entered by Jackal and Prince Leboo, American.
"1795. January 12, last visit of Vancouver.
" Daedalus visits Niihau; massacre. January 1, murder of captains.
"1797. Liholiho (Kamehameha II) was born.