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Senator Gray. The feelings of the friends of the Provisional Government against the Queen were very intense?

Mr. Alexander. Yes. On my part I thought it was a mistake to have declared a protectorate; I thought it was unnecessary.

Senator Gray. You thought it a mistake to raise the flag?

Mr. Alexander. Yes; it tended to put the Provisional Government in a false light. The events following showed it was unnecessary. But, being there, one could not see the flag hauled down without deep emotion.

Senator Butler. Then you think it was unnecessary to have hoisted the American flag?

Mr. Alexander. It was.

Senator Butler. In other words, the Provisional Government could have sustained itself without it?

Mr. Alexander. Yes.

The Chairman. After that time, was there any outbreak on the part of the populace against the Provisional Government.

Mr. Alexander. No; there was not.

The Chairman. No disturbance of the peace?

Mr. Alexander. It was supposed that there was a class, principally composed of white men, which was only deterred by the display of force.

The Chairman. At the time of the hauling down of that flag, what was the strength of the military that was supporting the Provisional Government?

Mr. Alexander. About 200.

The Chairman. Armed men?

Mr. Alexander. Yes; and behind them a very large number of citizen reserves.

The Chairman. You say a very large number. What number do you think?

Mr. Alexander. It had not been organized until about the time I left.

Senator Gray. When did you leave?

Mr. Alexander. In August. I presume that on short notice 400 men could have been collected then.

The Chairman. In addition to the 200 already under arms?

Mr. Alexander. Yes. Later they formed an organization of the citizen guards. About the 1st of October they numbered 800 men. I presume it is larger now.

The Chairman. The Provisional Government was supplied with guns and ammunition for an army of as many as a thousand men?

Mr. Alexander. I do not think they were as thoroughly armed as that when the revolution broke out.

The Chairman. No, at the time this flag was hauled down.

Mr. Alexander. I do not know. I doubt whether they could have armed a thousand men.

The Chairman. At the time you left Hawaii, in August, could they have armed a thousand men?

Mr. Alexander. I think they could. They had imported arms. Arms were on the way when the flag was hauled down.

The Chairman. The Government was importing arms and ammunition?

Mr. Alexander. Yes; I remember I heard the remark.

The Chairman. Was the Provisional Government put into possession

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of all the arms that had theretofore belonged to the Royal Government?

Mr. Alexander. That was doubted. I went to the barracks the next day after the surrender and they showed me the arms. There were 90 Springfleld rides, 75 Winchesters, 4 field pieces, and 10,000 rounds of ammunition. It was rumored that some arms were kept back. I do not know whether it was true.

Senator Butler. Were there any other ammunition or arms of that Government in the hands of the Provisional Government? I mean, were the men supplied with arms and ammunition?

Mr. Alexander. Not that I know of.

The Chairman. Were there any armed forces except in Honolulu and Oahu?

Mr. Alexander. Not now.

The Chairman. The whole force of the Kingdom was concentrated at Honolulu?

Mr. Alexander. Yes.

The Chairman. Were there any fighting ships, called ships of war, belonging to that Government?

Mr. Alexander. None.

The Chairman. Had the Government any ships at all?

Mr. Alexander. No, except steam tugs. These steam tugs towed vessels in and they belonged to the Government.

The Chairman. At Honolulu?

Mr. Alexander. Yes.

The Chairman. And other ports there also?

Mr. Alexander. No.

The Chairman. They had no revenue-marine service?

Mr. Alexander. No. To prevent the opium smuggling they needed a revenue marine.

Senator Butler. Is it your opinion that this Provisional Government could have been established without the interference of United States officials?

Mr. Alexander. Yes, I think so. But I think it is probable that it would not have been done without bloodshed.

Senator Butler. But it could have been established and maintained itself without any interference on the part of the United States officials?

Mr. Alexander. I think so.

Senator Butler. Now, there is only one point—I am speaking for myself only—on which I care to have information, and if you can give any I would be very glad to have you do so, and that is, to what extent the represenatives of the United States Goverment interfered in the affairs of Honolulu. Have you any information which you can give on that subject.

Mr. Alexander. You mean with this last revolution?

Senator Butler. Yes.

Mr. Alexander. They have interfered before on several occasions.

Senator Butler. The United States troops did?

Mr. Alexander. You refer to the last one?

Senator Butler. I refer to the last one. To what extent did the United States Government, through the diplomatic, civil, or naval officials, interfere in the affairs of Hawaii?

Mr. Alexander. I suppose the landing of the troops on Monday night, which was done without asking permission of the ministers, might have been considered an interference.