possession, and have troops here to protect us." Then he took a look around, and politely bowed and left.
During this time we had sent for the old cabinet and they came in. They sent word that they were afraid to come, but we sent word that everything was perfectly safe, so Cornwell and Colburn came, then the other two. We told them what had been done and gave them a copy of the proclamation and demanded the surrender of the Queen and the station house and barracks. They asked for time to go and see Her Majesty. We positively refused to let their guards patrol the town during the night. Mr. Damon went with them to the palace. We refused to let them have time until the next day.
During all this time, in response to our call for volunteers, they were coming in pretty thick, and presently word came back from the palace that the Queen surrendered, but wanted ten minutes' time for Marshal Wilson to get out of the station house; a protest came, too, which Mr. Dole received. Captain Wiltse came in just before the surrender, and said he had come to see if we had possession. He said, "Have you got possession of the palace, barracks, and the station house?" Mr. Dole said, "No, not yet; we are now arranging that." "Well," he says, "you must have them before we can recognize you as a power; we can not recognize you when there is another Government across the street." While he was speaking a tap came on the door and the others were returning with the Queen's surrender.
About this time Mr. Stevens's recognition came, and then Mr. Wodehouse, the British minister, came to see if we had possession and what we were doing. We told him and gave him a copy of the proclamation.
Then we went ahead getting ready for the night. We tried to get things in shape before dark as near as we could. I recollect I came out just before dark when we were talking about preparing for the night in case of trouble, as it had been threatened that the town would be burned. We began getting guards to go out over town, and as I looked around I counted at least 150 men there. Before dark we sent 20 men to the police station with Capt. Ziegler. There were so many things happening between 15 minutes to 3 until dark that it is hard to tell what came first.
During our meetings from the 14th to the 17th we had been looking up men, arms, and ammunition, and in every meeting had reports. We had figured up about 200 of the old Honolulu Rifles besides from 400 to 600 citizens that would shoulder a gun if it became necessary. We had to make estimates, as we could not expect to succeed without backing. We counted on those men as ready in squads around town to be at the building at 3 o'clock.
As to the causes which led to the revolution at the time the Jones cabinet was fired I know positively, for I was on the street all the time, that there was awful indignation about it all over town, and the question was raised then as to what would become of the country, and that the citizens would have to take care of themselves, something would have to be done. I took part in the revolutions of 1887 and 1889 both. It was always the brains and moneyed men of the country against the King and the ignorant. The best class of people took part in all three revolutions. They started the revolution of 1887, and they defeated the revolution of 1880, protecting the King when they thought he was trying to do what was right. When the news came that this Queen had tried to give us a new constitution I knew that the good citizens would have to take hold and do something.
At the time the Queen adjourned the Legislature in the way she did
I first got the idea of actually starting in and using force to dethrone her. As soon as that kind of talk became general we began to hear threats of having our property burned. We called on the minister to bring the troops ashore to protect lile and property, by which we meant to prevent any fires which we expected and had been threatened.
We never agreed in council nor was the question ever brought up that the Provisional Government would join with the Queen in submitting a controversy to the Government of the United States. The controversy was settled then and there when the Queen surrendered.
F. W. McChesney.
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 5th day of December, A. D. 1893
Alfred W. Carter,
WASHINGTON, D. C, January 15,1894.
The subcommittee met pursuant to adjournment.
Present: The chairman (Senator MOrgan) and Senators Gray and Frye.
Absent: Senators Butler and Sherman.
ADDITIONAL STATEMENT OF PROF. WILLIAM DEWITT ALEXANDER.
The Chairman. I want to ask you some questions about your supreme court. I do not know whether in your constitutional paper you have said anything about the supreme court.
Mr. Alexander. Yes; I have.
The Chairman. The supreme court consists of five judges?
Mr. Alexander. Three at present.
The Chairman. Is that the law at the present time?
Mr. Alexander. At present.
The Chairman. It has been changed from five to three?
Mr. Alexander. In 1880 the law was passed increasing the membership of the supreme court bench to five, and afterward a law was passed which provided that no vacancy should be filled until the membership was reduced to three, and that it should remain at three.
The Chairman. Has the membership been reduced to three?
Mr. Alexander. Yes. At the last session of the legislature a bill was passed reorganizing the courts on a new plan.
The Chairman. And provision was made in that law for the supreme court?
Mr. Alexander. The supreme court in the last bill was made a final court of appeal, and provided that no judge should have a case to come before him in which he had previously sat.
The Chairman. Does the supreme court consist of a chief justice?
Mr. Alexander. And two associate justices. Before that the supreme court judges held circuit courts, and there was complaint about that.
Senator Gray. On the ground that it was an appeal from Caesar to Caesar?
Mr. Alexander. Yes; they abolished that system.