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Mr. McCandless. Just declaring that the Queen had violated the constitution, and declaring the throne vacant.

The Chairman. Do you say that paper was signed by anybody?

Mr. McCandless. I understand it was signed by the ministers and ready to be proclaimed if the Queen resisted any further.

The Chairman. It was intended that, if the Queen insisted in going on with her revolutionary projects, the ministers would unite with Thurston and others in issuing a proclamation declaring the throne vacant?

Mr. McCandless. Deposing—declaring the throne vacant. I think that it is rather a mistake; it would be deposing her and wiping the government out of existence as a monarchy. It was together with a movement for annexation.

The Chairman. Why was not that proclamation issued?

Mr. McCandless. I will go back to Saturday afternoon at, say, half past 2 o'clock, when Mr. Neumann was present in W. O. Smith's office. The people began to gather in and get the information of the Queen's attempt to promulgate the new constitution. Then came the cry, "Now is the time to get rid of the whole thing." Neumann said, "Well, I don't know that I would go as far as that." I remember distinctly hearing Neumann make that remark.

Senator Gray. So far as what?

Mr. McCandless. Wiping out the whole monarchy. And on Saturday night—you must remember now that up to half past 1 Saturday afternoon the ministers and the element that promised support were political rivals, political opponents----

Senator Gray. You mean Saturday?

Mr. McCandless. Yes. The ministers on Sunday night had a meeting and came to the understanding that, as the Queen had receded from the position she had taken, their best plan was to try to stop this revolution if they could, at least throw cold water on it, and they still continue as ministers of the Queen.

The Chairman. You are now speaking of the Queen's ministers?

Mr. McCandless. Yes. On Sunday they were in communication with the committee of safety in regard to the next move, the proper move to make to stop the Queen in her mad career and to turn over the Government entirely. There were two communications on Sunday requesting a conference with the committee of safety, the time set being Monday morning at 9 o'clock.

The Chairman. Two communications to whom?

Mr. McCandless. From the ministers to the committee of safety; and it was for that reason that this committee was appointed that went up to the Government building to wait on the cabinet.

The Chairman. We are trying to find out why that proclamation, which you say was drawn, and which you say was signed by the ministers, was not issued.

Mr. McCandless. Simply because this element that had backed the Queen, had been her supporters from the time she had been on the throne, was against the white element of Honolulu. They had not been political friends, and if there was any way in which they could get out of it they would do it.

The Chairman. Is it your idea that they were then experimenting to see whether the safe side for them to take was the side of the monarchy or the side of the revolution?

Mr. McCandless. Yes; that was the way it was Sunday; and the best information we had was that at their meeting Sunday, at which


Macfarlane, Joe Carter, and Paul Neumann were present, they decided that their safest place was to go back on the side of the monarchy. Therefore, when the meeting took place Monday morning they had not anything to say. They had this proclamation of the Queen ready and showed us the original copy.

The Chairman. As I gather from your statement, your idea is that they had become convinced between Saturday and Monday that their personal interests lay in the direction of maintaining this Queen on the throne, and that they were attempting to get and did get from her a declaration that she would carry out the constitution of '87?

Mr. McCandless. Yes; and would not attempt to promulgate the new constitution again.

The Chairman. That was their attitude as you understood it?

Mr. McCandless. That was their attitude as I understood it.

The Chairman. Do you think you can be mistaken about that?

Mr. McCandless. I do not think I was. They met Saturday, asked for aid; we got together, gathered up arms and got recruits to support them, and by Monday morning they had issued this proclamation and posted notices for a counter mass meeting.

The Chairman. And that was after they had given their assent to the proclamation dethroning the Queen and abolishing the monarchy?

Mr. McCandless. Yes.

The Chairman. You do not know whether it was signed?

Mr. McCandless. If I understood correctly, it was signed.

The Chairman. As I understand, the whole cabinet, with these two ministers, had given their assent to that?

Mr. McCandless. The whole cabinet had given their assent to that programme on Saturday afternoon. They were completely demoralized, because their lives were in danger.

Senator Frye. You said there were two or three things that you thought were important, and those you stated. Then you got down to the meetings on Monday morning. Now, go back.

The Chairman. I asked you what was done at the mass meeting held by the opponents of the Queen?

Mr. McCandless. All the business houses were shut up, and the whole white population of Honolulu came to the mass meeting.

The Chairman. Do you mean the male population?

Mr. McCandless. The male population; the women did not go, because they were in a terrible state at home.

The Chairman. State of apprehension?

Mr. McCandless. State of apprehension; because before this we had rumors that the half whites proposed to burn the town.

The Chairman. What numbers met there?

Mr. McCandless. I should judge from 1,000 to 1,200.

The Chairman. Were there any armed persons in the crowd?

Mr. McCandless. No; I do not think there were, unless individuals with concealed arms.

The Chairman. Were the persons there in the habit of carrying concealed arms about them?

Mr. McCandless. No.

The Chairman. On that occasion did you know that they were with arms concealed about their persons?

Mr. McCandless. No; I do not recollect any one at the meeting.

The Chairman. Did they elect a chairman?

Mr. McCandless. Yes.

The Chairman. Who was it?