1102-1127

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Mr. Day. An Hawaiian.

Senator Gray. J. A. McCandless?

Mr. Day. An American.

Senator Gray. Were they all voters, the same as you?

Mr. Day. Yes; many of them are old residents of the country.

Senator Frye. Is there anything that occurs to you that you would like to state in connection with this matter? If there is anything that you know about the revolution that occurred about that time, and it is legitimate, you may state it.

Mr. Day. I would like to state my opinion, if you will allow me, about the landing of the American troops—my individual opinion.

Senator Frye. Yes.

Mr. Day. It seemed to me as though it was the duty of the American minister, under the conditions, to land the troops for the protection of American property.

Senator Gray. And life?

Mr. Day. And the lives of women and children that might be sacrificed, perhaps. I think that duty devolved not only upon him, but upon all ministers there, to land troops for the protection of the citizens and their lives; but the Boston was the only ship in the waters at the time. The same thing has been done, during the last crisis by the British and Japanese, by landing troops from their ships.

Senator Frye. What do you call the last crisis?

Mr. Day. During the time when there was, apparently, danger of conflict between the Provisional Government and the royalists at an attempted restoration of the Queen.

Senator Gray. While you were there?

Mr. Day. No.

Senator Frye. That has been since the Provisional Government was established?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Gray. After you left the islands?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Gray. That is hearsay.

Senator Frye. Did most of the valuable property in Honolulu belong to men of American birth?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Gray. Do you know Mr. Thurston?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Gray. Have you seen him since you have been here?

Mr. Day. I saw him for a few minutes last evening.

Senator Frye. When did you arrive, yesterday?

Mr. Day. Last evening.

Senator Frye. Did you call on Mr. Thurston or did he call on you?

Mr. Day. I called on him.

Senator Frye. Was Dr. Delamater with you last evening when you called?

Mr. Day. Yes; Mr. Irwin, Dr. Delamater, and I called on Mr. Thurston. Mr. Thurston is an old patient of mine.

SWORN STATEMENT OF ROSWELL RANDALL HOES.

Senator Frye. Are you a chaplain in the Navy?

Mr. Hoes. Yes.

Senator Frye. Have you ever been in Honolulu?

Mr. Hoes. I have.

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Senator Frye. When and how long were you there?

Mr. Hoes. I reached Honolulu on the U. S. S. Pensacola September 25, 1891, and remained there until March 9, 1893.

The Chairman. Who was your captain?

Mr. Hoes. The commanding officer of the Pensacola was Capt. Albert Kautz, U. S. Navy.

Senator Frye. What were you doing there during that time?

Mr. Hoes. I went there as chaplain of the Pensacola, and, having considerable leisure, apart from my professional duties, I commenced a study of the history of the country, pursuing it as carefully and critically as the books and pamphlets at my command would permit.

The Chairman. Do you mean to say that you stayed ashore from 1891 to 1893?

Mr. Hoes. No; I will explain that. I was officially attached to the Pensacola while she remained in Hawaiian waters, and performed my duties accordingly; but, having considerable leisure at my disposal, as already said, I engaged in historical studies, and was instrumental, with Prof. Alexander, J. S. Emerson, and others, in organizing the Hawaiian Historical Society, and was officially connected with that organization until I left Honolulu. The Queen, subsequently hearing that I was so deeply interested in historical research, applied to Secretary Blaine, through Minister Stevens, for permission for me to remain in Honolulu after the Pensacola left, to prepare a bibliography of Hawaii, and also to examine and arrange the early archives of the Government, which were in a state of disgraceful confusion. I was subsequently detached and remained in Honolulu until the time stated.

The Chairman. If the Queen made that application of her own motion she could not have been a very ignorant woman?

Mr. Hoes. No one ever claimed that respecting the Queen. As a matter of fact, however, the Queen took this action upon the advice of Prof. Alexander, the recognized historian of the country, and of others who were interested in the history of Hawaii and the preservation of its early archives.

Senator Frye. Did you keep a scrapbook?

Mr. Hoes. I kept a scrapbook of the first days of the revolution. It was made up of all the cuttings relating in any way to the revolution, taken from the Advertiser, a supporter of the Provisional Government, and the Bulletin and Holomua, both of which then and subsequently advocated the cause of the Queen.

Senator Frye. In that scrap book does there appear the recognitions of the Provisional Government by the various governments represented in Honolulu?

Mr. Hoes. Yes.

Senator Frye. The letters of recognition sent by the various Governments represented in the Hawaiian Islands do not appear of record here, and I think they ought to come in. They are as follows:

Consulate of Chile,
Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, January 18, 1893.
Gentlemen: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of yesterday's date, together with a copy of the proclamation issued yesterday, whereby I am informed, for reasons set forth, the Hawaiian monarchy has been abrogated and a provisional government established, the same being now in possession of Government departmental buildings, the archives, and the treasury, and whereby you request me to recognize the said Provisional Government
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as the de facto Government on behalf of the Government of Chile, and to afford to it the moral support of my Government.
In response I have the honor to say that I comply with the above request and recognize the said Provisional Government as the de facto Government of the Hawaiian Islands, so far as my authority as consul for Chile may permit me to act for and on behalf of the Government of the Republic of Chile in the premises. I have the honor to be, gentlemen,
Your very obedient servant,
F. A. Schaefer,
Consul for Chile.
Hons. Sanford B. Dole,
J. A. King,
P. C. Jones,
W. O. Smith,
Executive Council of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands.

Austro-Hungarian Consulate, Hawaiian Islands,
Honolulu, January 18, 1893.
To the Executive Council of the Provisional Government in Hawaii, Messrs. Sanford B. Dole, J. A. King, P. C. Jones, and Willinm 0. Smith:
Gentlemen: I have the honor to own receipt of your esteemed favor of yesterday's date, and hereby take much pleasure to recognize and acknowledge on behalf of the Austro-Hungarian Government the present Government of the Hawaiian Islands, and that I shall do all in my power to further and support the same.
I have the honor to be, gentlemen, your most obedient servant.
H. F. Glade,
Austro-Hungarian Consul.

Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, January 18, 1893.
Gentlemen: I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your communication of yesterday's date, together with a copy of the proclamation issued yesterday, informing me that for reasons set forth the Hawaiian monarchy has been abrogated, and a Provisional Government established, and requesting me to recognize the said Provisional Government as the de facto Government of the Hawaiian Islands, and to afford to it the moral support of my Government.
In answer, I have the honor to state that I comply with the above request, and recognize the said Provisional Government as the de facto Government of the Hawaiian Islands, within the scope of my authority.
I have the honor to be, gentlemen, your obedient servant,
H. RENJES,
Consul for Mexico.
Hons. Sanford B. Dole,
J. A. King,
P. C. Jones,
W. O. Smith,
Executive Council of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands.
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Vice-Consulate of Russia,
Honolulu, January 18, 1893.
Sirs: I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your communication of 17th inst., and in reply beg to inform you that I take pleasure to recognize the Provisional Government of Hawaii as defined in the proclamation inclosed in your letter, on behalf of the Government of Russia, and I shall afford to it my moral support as representative of the country last named.
I have the honor to be, sirs, your most obedient servant,
J. F. Hackfeld,
Acting Vice-Consul.
Messrs. Sanford B. Dole,
J. A. King,
P. C. Jones,
William O. Smith,
Executive Council of the Provisional Government of Hawaii, Honolula.

Consulate of the Netherlands,
Honolulu, January 18, 1893.
Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the communication of the executive council of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands announcing the abrogation of the Hawaiian monarchy, of your possession of the Government, departmental buildings, the archives, and the treasury, as well as being in control of the city.
Added to the above is your request for the official recognition of the existing de facto Government of the Hawaiian Islands on behalf of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which I have the honor to represent, and to give you the moral support of my Government.
In reply I take pleasure in assuring the gentlemen of the executive council, that I cordially extend to them full assent to their claim for recognition, and of my intention to add such moral support as may come within the scope of my consular authority.
I have the honor to be, gentlemen, your very obedient servant,
John H. Paty,
Consul for the Netherlands.
Messrs. S. B. Dole,
J. A. King,
P. C. Jones,
W. O. Smith,
Executive Council, Hawaiian Provisional Government, etc.

Imperial German Consulate,
Hawaiian Islands, Honolulu, January 18, 1893.
To the Executive Council of the Provisional Government in Hawaii, Messrs. Sanford B. Dole, J. A. King, P. C. Jones, W. 0. Smith:
Gentlemen: I have the honor to own receipt of your esteemed favor of yesterday's date, and hereby take much pleasure to recognize and acknowledge on behalf of the Government of Germany the present Government of the Hawaiian Islands, and that I shall do all in my power to further and support the same.
I have the honor to be, gentlemen, your most obedient servant,
H. F. Glade,
Imperial German Consul.

S. Doc. 231, pt 6----70

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Kongl Swensta Och Worsta Konsulatet,
Honolulu, January 18, 1893.
Gentlemen: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your Excellency's communication of January 17 informing me that the Hawaiian monarchy has been abrogated and that a provisional Government has been established in Hawaii for reasons set forth in a proclamation, of which you sent me a copy; also that such Provisional Government has been proclaimed, is now in possession of the governmental departmental buildings, the archives and the treasury, and is in control of the city.
In reply to your request to recognize the Provisional Government and afford it the moral support of my Government, I beg to say that I do recognize it as the existing de facto government of the Hawaiian Islands, and that I shall report to my Government immediately.
I have the honor to remain, your excellencies', your most obedient servant,
H. W. Schmidt.

Honolulu, January 18, 1893.
Gentlemen: I have the honor to own the receipt of your communication of yesterday's date, together with a copy of the proclamation issued yesterday, informing me that for reasons set forth the Hawaiian monarchy has been abrogated and a Provisional Government established, and requesting me to recognize the said Provisional Government on behalf of the Spanish Government as the existing de facto government of the Hawaiian Islands, and to afford to it the moral support of my Government.
In response, I have the honor to say that I comply with the above request and recognize the said Provisional Government as the de facto government of the Hawaiian Islands within the scope of my authority.
I have the honor to be, gentlemen, your most obedient servant,
H. Renjes,
Vice-Consul for Spain.
Hons. Sanford B. Dole,
J. A. King,
P. C. Jones,
W. O. Smith,
Executive Council of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands.

His Imperial Japanese Majesty's Consulate-General,
Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, January 19, 1893.
Gentlemen: The receipt of your communication, dated the 17th instant, inclosing a copy of proclamation issued on the same day, informing me that for reasons set forth in said proclamation the Hawaiian monarchy has been abrogated and a Provisional Government established, which is now in possession of the Government departmental buildings, the archives, and the treasury, and requesting me on behalf of H. I. J. M.'s Government to recognize said Provisional Government as the de facto Government of the Hawaiian Islands, pending the receipt
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of instructions from H. I. J. M.'s Government, to whom advices of your action and of the position which I have taken in relation thereto have been despatched.
I have the honor to be, gentlemen, your obedient servant,
Suburo Fujii,
Agent and Consul-General.
Hons. Sanford B. Dole, J. A. King, P. C. Jones, Wm. O. Smith,
Executive Council of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands.

Honolulu, January 18, 1893.
Gentlemen: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of yesterday's date, together with a copy of the proclamation issued yesterday, whereby you inform me that for reasons set forth the Hawaiian monarchy has been abrogated and a Provisional Government established, the same being now in possession of the Government departmental buildings, the archives, and the treasury, and whereby you request me to recognize the said Provisional Government on behalf of the Government of Italy as the existing de facto Government of the Hawaiian Islands and to afford to it the moral support of my Government.
In response I have the honor to say that I comply with the above request, and recognize the said Provisional Government as the de facto Government of the Hawaiian Islands so far as my authority as consul for Italy may permit me to act for and on behalf of His Italian Majesty's Government in the premises.
I have the honor to be, gentlemen, your very obedient servant,
F. A. Schaefer,
Consul for Italy.
Hons. Sanford B. Dole, J. A. King, P. C. Jones, W. O. Smith,
Executive Council of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands.

[Translation.]
Consulate-General of Portugal in Hawaii,
Honolulu, January 18, 1893.
Sir: You inform me by your letter of the 17th instant that, for the reason set forth in the proclamation which accompanies it, the Hawaiian monarchy has been abrogated and that a Provisional Government, which has been established in its place, is at this moment in possession of the Government buildings and master of the capital. Under these circumstances I recognize the Provisional Government as being the de facto Government of Hawaii, and I hasten to submit the decision I have just taken to my Government.
Accept, sir, the assurance of my very distinguished consideration.
A. de Souza Canavarro,
Consul-General and Charge d'Affaires of Portugal.
Monsieur S. B. Dole,
President of the Executive Council of the Provisional Government.
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British Legation,
Honolulu, January 19,1893.
Gentlemen: The receipt of your communication of the 17th instant is acknowledged, together with a copy of the proclamation, informing me that for reasons set forth in said proclamation the Hawaiian monarchy has been abrogated, and a Provisional Government established, and whereby you ask me to recognize the said Provisional Government on behalf of Her Britannic Majesty's Government as the existing de facto Government, and to afford it the moral support of my Government.
In reply, I beg to say that I recognize the Provisional Government as the existing de facto Government pending instructions from my Government.
I am, gentlemen, your obedient servant,
James H. Wodehouse,
H. B. M.'s Minister Resident.
To the Members of the Executive Council of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands, Honolulu.

United States Legation,
Honolulu, Hiwaiian Islands, January 17, 1893.
A provisional government having been duly constituted in place of the recent Government of Queen Lilioukalani, and said Provisional Government being in full possession of the Government buildings, the archives, and the treasury, and in control of the capital of the Hawaiian Islands, I hereby recognize said Provisional Government as the de facto Government of the Hawaiian Islands.
John L. Stevens,
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States.

Royal Danish Consulate,
Honolulu, January 18,1893.
Sirs: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of yesterday's date, inclosing a copy of proclamation issued last evening, informing me, that for reasons set forth in said proclamation, the Hawaiian Monarchy has been abrogated and a provisional government established, which is now in possession of the Government departmental buildings, the archives, and the treasury, and requesting me, on behalf of the Government of Denmark, to recognize said Provisional Government as the de facto government of the Hawaiian Islands, and to accord to it the moral support of my Government.
In reply, I have the honor to state that I hereby comply with the above request, recognizing the said Provisional Government as the de facto government of the Hawaiian Islands, to the extent that my authority will allow me to act, pending a reply from my Government.
I have the honor to be, sirs, yours, most obediently,
E. C. MacFarlane,
Acting Vice-Consul for Denmark.
Messrs. Sanford B. Dole,
J. A. King,
P. C. Jones,
William O. Smith,
Executive Council of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands.
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Consulate of Belgium, January 18,1893.
Sirs: I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your communication of 17th instant, and in reply beg to inform you that I take pleasure to recognize the Provisional Government of Hawaii as defined in the proclamation inclosed in your letter on behalf of the Government of Belgium, and I shall to it my moral support as representative of the country last named.
I have the honor to be, sirs, your most obedient servant,
J. Hackfeld,
Consul.
Messrs. Sanford B. Dole,
J. A. King,
P. C. Jones,
William O. Smith,
Executive Council of the Provisional Government of Hawaii, Honolulu.

Chinese Commercial Agency,
Honolulu, January 18, 1893.
Gentlemen: We have the honor to acknowledge a receipt of your circular letter of the 17th instant covering a copy of the proclamation issued yesterday, whereby you inform us that the Hawaiian monarchy has been abrogated and a provisional government established, the latter being now in possession of the Government departmental buildings, the archives, and the treasury, and whereby you request us to recognize the said Provisional Government on behalf of the Government of the Empire of China as the existing de facto government of the Hawaiian Islands and to afford to it the moral support of our Government.
In answer we have the honor to say that we comply with your request and recognize the said Provisional Government as the de facto government of the Hawaiian Islands so far as our authority as commercial agents of China may allow us to act for and on behalf of His Imperial Chinese Majesty's Government.
We have the honor to be, gentlemen, your most obedient servants,
Goo Kim,
Chinese Commercial Agent.
Wong Kwai,
Assistant Chinese Commercial Agent.
Hons. Sanford B. Dole,
J. A. King,
P. C. Jones,
William O. Smith,
Executive Council of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands.

Office of the Peruvian Consulate,
Honolulu, January 18, 1893.
Gentlemen: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your valued communication of the 17th instant, inclosing a copy of the proclamation then issued, wherein it is set forth that the Hawaiian monarchy has been abrogated and a provisional government established.
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You request me to recognize said government on behalf of the Government of Peru as the de facto government of the Hawaiian Islands, and to afford to it the moral support of my Government.
I have the honor to state, in reply, that I take pleasure in complying with your request, and I hereby recognize the said government as the de facto government of the Hawaiian Islands, in so far as my authority in the premises will permit.
I have the honor to remain, gentlemen, your most obedient servant,
Bruce Cartwright,
Consul for Peru.
Hons. Sanford B. Dole,
J. A. King,
P. C. Jones,
Wm. O. Smith,
Members of the Executive Council of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands.

[Translation.]
Consulate and Commissariat of France in Hawaii,
Honolulu, January 18,1893.
Sir: I have received the letter dated the 17th of this month by which you inform me that for the reasons indicated in the text of the proclamation which you handed to me on the same day, the members of the executive council, of which you are a part, have proclaimed, yesterday, the abrogation of the Hawaiian monarchy and the establishment of a provisional government.
In acknowledging the receipt of this communication I at once inform you that I have informed my Government of the events which have just taken place in this archipelago, adding that I recognize the actual condition of affairs pending instruction.
Accept, sir, the assurances of my most distinguished consideration,
Vizzavona.
Monsieur Dole,
President of the Executive Council of the Provisional Government, Honolulu.

Senator Gray. Were these printed contemporaneously with their recognition?

Mr. Hoes. Yes. If it is desired I can state a very interesting point that I happen to know from personal knowledge in regard to the English recognition.

The Chairman. We are trying to ascertain when it was.

Mr. Hoes. I was present in the room of the Provisional Government the first afternoon it was organized.

The Chairman. What date was that?

Mr. Hoes. Saturday being the 14th, that was the 17th, Tuesday.

Senator Gray. You were where?

Mr. Hoes. As I said, I was present in the room of the Provisional Government the afternoon it held its first meeting, and while I was there the English commissioner, Maj. Wodehouse, came into the room and had a whispered conversation with President Dole which could not be heard, at least by me, and I do not think by anyone except the President. A short time after that, probably within one hour, I had

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a short conversation with Maj. Wodehouse on the porch of the Government house in which he told me that he had recognized the Provisional Government. I suppose, of course, the inference was he had done it informally. I state this because there was a delay of twenty-four hours, or more, before he recognized the Government in writing. While his formal recognition was not made as early as those of the other representatives in Honolulu, he was in reality the first to recognize the new government, with the possible exception of the U.S. minister, Mr. Stevens.

Senator Frye. Were you there when Mr. Stevens sent in his recognition?

Mr. Hoes. I suppose I was, but I cannot swear positively as to that.

Senator Frye. But you think Mr. Wodehouse was the first one?

Mr. Hoes. I do not know whether he preceded or succeeded Mr. Stevens.

Senator Frye. What time was it that you were there and Mr. Wodehouse was there?

Mr. Hoes. If I were asked what time Mr. Wodehouse had the whispered conversation with Mr. Dole I could not swear to it, but I should venture to say not far from 4 o'clock—in fact, probably after 4 o'clock.

The Chairman. Will you allow me to inquire what sort of a man Mr. Dole is? Give your description as you understand him. I would like to know something about his character and temper.

Mr. Hoes. I am personally and intimately acquainted with President Dole. I regard him as mentally, morally, intellectually, and I may add, physically, one of the finest types of men I have ever met. He is broad minded; he is conservative; he is dispassionate; and I believe I state the opinion of most men in that country when I say that he is more highly looked up to and respected than any other man in public and political life in that country.

The Chairman. From your knowledge of his character and bearing, would you suppose that he would be engaged in a mere adventure for revolutionizing the country for the purpose of getting political power into his hands?

Mr. Hoes. I do not think that any such thought or suggestion could enter the mind of any man living in Honolulu or the Hawaiian kingdom.

The Chairman. As to Dole?

Mr. Hoes. As to President Dole.

Senator Frye. Were you there from the 1st of January, 1893, until after the revolution?

Mr. Hoes. I was.

Senator Frye. You may state, if you please, what you observed as taking place in the Legislature of the Hawaiian Islands during the month of December preceding the revolution.

Mr. Hoes. That is a pretty broad question. It was a continuous scene of disordry and disgracefulness.

Senator Frye. In what particular?

Mr. Hoes. Bribery, undignified wrangle, and a perpetual fight to upset one ministry and to replace it with another.

Senator Frye. What ministry were they undertaking to upset?

Mr. Hoes. I could not carry the names of the various ministers composing the several cabinets in my mind any more than I could the movements of the men in a game of chess.

Senator Frye. You know the Wilcox-Jones cabinet?

Mr. Hoes. Yes.

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Senator Frye. That was composed of respectable men?

Mr. Hoes. Highly.

Senator Frye. Having the confidence of the people?

Mr. Hoes. Having the confidence of the better class of the people, but not having the confidence of the class of the people led by unscrupulous adventurers like C. W. Ashford and others like him, totally devoid of character.

Senator Frye. Was there an attempt being made to oust that cabinet?

Mr. Hoes. Yes.

The Chairman. Were those attempts made for the purpose of personal aggrandizement of power or for questions that were up?

Mr. Hoes. My understanding was, and I think the understanding of most of the honest men there was, that it was a fight between so-called royal prerogative on the one hand and honest government on the other—a contest between the Queen and her desire for personal and autocratic power on the one hand, and the better and higher interests of the Hawaiian people on the other.

The Chairman. That is a very general statement and I want to inquire of you whether this political controversy had reference to any particular legislation or executive action in reference to changes in the constitution, or any other thing—whether there was any real question.

Mr. Hoes. I think at last it had primary reference to the passage of the so-called "lottery bill."

Senator Frye. Do you remember when the Boston left the harbor and went down to Hilo?

Mr. Hoes. Yes; very well.

Senator Frye. At that time the Jones-Wilcox cabinet was in power, was it not?

Mr. Hoes. It was.

Senator Frye. State whether or not at that time there was a feeling of security that it would remain in power and that the thing was settled.

Mr. Hoes. Yes; and I know, moreover, that it was the prevalent opinion among the best classes there that the lottery bill and lottery agitation would not be introduced again. It was the belief at that time that it had received its death blow at an earlier stage of the legislative proceedings, and, resting upon that belief, several of the legislators who would have voted against it, believing that all important legislation had already been transacted, left for their homes. This so weakened the numerical strength of the party of good order and the anti-lottery element in the legislature, that those who were in favor of the lottery saw that their chance had come, and, in the absence of the members referred to, and especially in the absence of the Boston and Mr. Stevens, the American minister, sprung the lottery bill very suddenly upon the legislature, and carried it through.

Senator Frye. And they overturned the Jones-Wilcox cabinet?

Mr. Hoes. Yes. I do not think I make any mistake in stating, in order to show with what haste the whole thing was managed, that the official announcement to the Legislature that the Queen had signed that lottery bill was made to the Legislature the very same morning that the Queen prorogued that body.

Senator Frye. So that when the Boston actually sailed there was a feeling of security that the conditions of peace were to last until the end of that Legislature?

Mr. Hoes. I believe that was the general feeling and belief.

Senator Frye. When the Boston sailed there commenced a struggle

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in the Legislature? Did that end in the enactment of the lottery and opium bills?

Mr. Hoes. It did of the lottery bill; I am not clear in my mind as to the opium bill, because everybody was so concerned in the fate of the lottery bill that its discussion overshadowed everything else.

Senator Frye. Did that not result in the displacement of the Jones-Wilcox cabinet?

Mr. Hoes. It did.

Senator Frye. Do you remember the return of the Boston on Saturday the 14th?

Mr. Hoes. Yes.

Senator Frye. Were you present and a spectator of most of the things that took place on the 14th, 15th, 16th, and 17th of January, 1893?

Mr. Hoes. Most all of them.

Senator Frye. Will you state day after day what was going on?

The Chairman. Commencing, I suppose, with the arrival of the Boston in the port of Honolulu?

Mr. Hoes. When the Queen prorogued the Legislature I saw her leave the building in her state carriage and go to the palace. A few minutes subsequently I went home. Not long thereafter, I learned by telephone that the Queen had promulgated, or was about to promulgate, a new constitution. I went at once to the palace grounds, and found collected there a large crowd of natives listening to a harangue by a member of the late Legislature and friend of the Queen, named White, who spoke from the front steps of the palace. The action of the Queen created a great deal of excitement in the community—a suppressed, but at the same time a determined excitement.

The Chairman. State what came under your personal observation.

Mr. Hoes. The next day was Sunday. The excitement continued. Everyone wondered what was to come next, and what was to be done next. Monday came and a poster was seen upon the street.

Senator Frye. Was that the poster [exhibiting paper]?

Mr. Hoes. It was a poster similar to this. I got this from the printing office.

Senator Frye. How was it seen upon the streets? Was it posted?

Mr. Hoes. Posted about the streets.

The Chairman. You mean on the houses?

Mr. Hoes. Publicly posted, in the usual manner.

Senator Frye. Calling for a meeting on Monday afternoon?

Mr. Hoes. Yes. Shall I read this?

Senator Frye. You may.

Mr. Hoes. The poster is as follows:

"Mass meeting. A mass meeting of citizens will be held at the Beretania Street armory on Monday, January 16, at 2 p.m., to consider the present critical situation. Let all business places be closed. Per order of committee of safety. Honolulu, January 14, 1893."

Senator Frye. Well?

Mr. Hoes. I attended the meeting at the armory Monday afternoon, January 16. I was told that it was a larger and more enthusiastic meeting than gathered in the same place at the time of the revolution of 1887. I am informed that it was the most enthusiastic and unanimous meeting—I mean unanimous in the sentiments which seemed to pervade the people—of any state or political meeting ever held in Honolulu. That meeting appointed a committee of safety.

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The Chairman. You say you were told that. What was your opinion?

Mr. Hoes. I was not there in 1887, and therefore have no opinion on that point.

The Chairman. What is your opinion about the enthusiasm and zeal and unanimity of feeling at the meeting you attended.

Mr. Hoes. I was told----

The Chairman. Not what you were told.

Mr. Hoes. The enthusiasm and zeal of the meeting were its most conspicuous characteristics, and there was absolute unanimity of word and action. The resolutions that were offered were unanimously passed. There was no unhealthful excitement displayed. The people were naturally somewhat excited, but they had great confidence in Mr. Thurston and others who composed the committee of safety. They placed discretionary power in the hands of that committee, and the meeting adjourned. If there had been any persons present at that meeting who desired to offer opinions adverse to those which had been expressed by the speakers, I believe they would have been allowed to do so. There were none such offered or suggested.

The Chairman. You believe that?

Mr. Hoes. I do; but of course I could not prove it. It would be only a matter of belief; but at all events no one offered to speak on the other side. The meeting adjourned and most of the crowd then poured down in front of the palace where they thought the meeting of natives in behalf of the Queen was in progress. I can not say what the feeling of that crowd was, or what their motive was in going around there, but I know what my own motive was—it was a feeling of curiosity and a desire to be present and see a row if there should be any, and I expected there would be one. I believe I had every reason to think so.

Senator Frye. When you got there what was going on?

Mr. Hoes. The meeting of natives had adjourned and the people had dispersed. I ought to go back and speak of something that occurred Monday morning. This meeting was held Monday afternoon, January 16. Monday morning a newspaper supplement appeared on the street, in the Hawaiian language, which was issued from the printing office of John E. Bush, and a copy of which you hold in your hand.

Senator Frye. Was that in the Hawaiian language?

Mr. Hoes. Yes.

Senator Gray. When was that posted?

Mr. Hoes. It was not posted, it was handed around to the crowd by carriers.

Senator Gray. What day?

Mr. Hoes. The morning of the day this meeting was held at the armory—Monday, January 16.

Senator Gray. Can you translate that poster?

Mr. Hoes. No.

The Chairman. Do you know what printing office it was printed at?

Mr. Hoes. At Ka Leo O Ka Lahui printing office, I suppose. I wanted to speak of another point. It is in connection with the landing of the troops. The troops landed Monday. Monday night I heard an alarm of fire and I went to the fire.

Senator Gray. Were you keeping house?

Mr. Hoes. No. I kept house until my family returned to the United States, shortly before the revolution. There was an alarm of fire Monday night, and I went to the fire. It was one of two fires that occurred that night. I was informed that the natives and those who


-p1114-

led them had said that in case of the dethronement of the Queen the conduit pipes of the city would be tampered with, and that prominent houses would be burned.

Senator Gray. Who informed you?

Mr. Hoes. That was current rumor in Honolulu about that time. There are some things concerning which I cannot speak from positive knowledge, but which were matters of popular rumor. But there was a feeling of fear prevalent; no one could tell what might be done, or what might not be done, by natives led on by white adventurers, who were aiming to excite the passions of the natives.

Senator Frye. There was a pervading fear that there would be trouble?

Mr. Hoes. Yes. There were, as I have said, two fires that night, one on Beretania street and another at Emma Square.

Senator Frye. Did you think that night that life and property were in danger?

Mr. Hoes. Yes.

Senator Frye. Was there a feeling during Monday that the lives and property of Americans would be in danger?

Mr. Hoes. There was a pervading fear of uncertainty. I believe that a great many people felt that their lives and property were in danger. After that meeting at the armory was held there was a feeling of insecurity. The meeting having placed broad discretionary powers into the hands of the committee of safety, the people awaited with patience and confidence the result of their deliberations. The next afternoon, Tuesday, came the reading of the proclamation dethroning the Queen and proclaiming the Provisional Government by the committee of safety. I was present at the Government house when the first troops of the Provisional Government filed in.

Senator Gray. The Government house?

Mr. Hoes. The Government house. A sturdy, determined-looking set of men filed in there with muskets and rifles.

Senator Gray. How many in the first squad?

Mr. Hoes. In the first squad that went in there might have been 25 and there might have been 50.

Senator Frye. Were you there when the proclamation was read?

Mr. Hoes. I think I must have been there between five and ten minutes afterward, not longer than that.

Senator Frye. Were many people in front of the Government buildings?

Mr. Hoes. Not many.

Senator Frye. Did the Provisional Government take possession of the public buildings?

Mr. Hoes. They had absolute possession at that time of what is called the Government building, containing the offices of administration.

Senator Frye. They immediately after that issued an "order," January 17, on Tuesday, calling for arms?

Mr. Hoes. Yes; I have one here.

Senator Frye. Did they issue that?

Mr. Hoes. Yes. Shall I read it?

Senator Frye. Yes.

-p1116-

Mr. Hoes. It reads as follows:

"Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, January 17,1893.
"PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS.
{sc|Order No. 1.}}
"All persons favorable to the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands are hereby requested to forthwith report to the Government at the Government building and to furnish to the Government such arms and ammunition as they may have in their possession or control as soon as possible in order that efficient and complete protection of life and property and the public peace may immediately and efficiently be put into operation.
"Sanford B. Dole,
"J. A. King,
"P. C. Jones,
"William O. Smith,
"Executive Council of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands.
"John Emmeluth,
"Andrew Brown,
"C. Bolte,
"James F. Morgan,
"Henry Waterhouse,
"S. M. Damon,
"W. G. Ashley,
"E. D. Tenney,
"F. W. McChesney,
"W. C. Wilder,
"Advisory Council of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands

Senator Frye. Do you know how many troops the Provisional Government had at the time they took possession of the Government buildings?

Mr. Hoes. Do you mean before that night was over?

Senator Frye. Yes.

Mr. Hoes. I do not know. I should say several hundred.

Senator Frye. Armed or otherwise?

Mr. Hoes. I think they were all armed. Among them were many of the best men in the community.

Senator Frye. Do you know how many they succeeded in getting under arms under that proclamation?

Mr. Hoes. I do not. I believe the number was increased steadily day by day, but to what extent I do not know.

Senator Frye. Going back to Monday. In your opinion was there such a condition of things existing in Honolulu at that time as to require the presence of the American troops from the Boston to protect American life and property?

Mr. Hoes. Most decidedly, in my opinion.

Senator Frye. During all those weeks of revolution, and after the United States troops had arrived, did those troops take any part in the conflict between the Queen and the Provisional Government?

Mr. Hoes. No, not to my knowledge.

-p1117-

Senator Frye. Do you know whether during all that time of the days of the revolution the Provisional Government had any expectation of the assistance of the American troops?

Mr. Hoes. I never heard it suggested.

Senator Frye. In your opinion if the Boston had been a thousand miles at sea instead of in the harbor, would the Provisional Government have become a government at that time?

Mr. Hoes. I believe it would.

Senator Frye. In your opinion had it sufficient force to overcome all that the Queen could bring against it?

Mr. Hoes. I think it had sufficent moral force and physical force.

Senator Frye. Have you any doubt that the Provisional Government would have gone forward even in the absence of the Boston and the American troops?

Mr. Hoes. I think the sentiment of the people would have forced the issue at that time.

The Chairman. The sentiment in regard to what?

Mr. Hoes. The sentiment of the people as to their individual and collective rights.

The Chairman. Do you mean under the constitution?

Mr. Hoes. I mean under the higher constitution, the constitution of revolution.

Senator Frye. Did you have any conversation with any prominent Hawaiians in relation to the change of government?

Mr. Hoes. I mingled a good deal during the time I was in Honolulu among the common Hawaiian people and among the prominent Hawaiian people. I was constantly studying the historical side of the question, as well as contemporary opinion, and I was persistently trying to learn the views of the people. To answer your question more exactly, I did have conversation with prominent Hawaiians.

Senator Frye. Did you have any conversation with J. A. Kawainui?

Mr. Hoes. Yes. He was the editor of the most prominent newspaper in the Kingdom—the Kuakoa.

Senator Frye. When did you have that conversation?

Mr. Hoes. Shortly after the revolution.

Senator Frye. Will you please read it?

Mr. Hoes. Yes, sir. (Reading:)

"The Kemehameha dynasty had a strong hold upon the native heart because of its noble ancestry, but Kalakaua and the late Queen, on account of their comparatively ignoble origin, did not command the respect due to genuine high chiefs. The corruption of Kalakaua and her late majesty have brought sore evils upon the Hawaiians. Then, too, certain designing foreigners have exercised a very pernicious political influence on the natives, and have sought to use them only for the accomplishment of their own ends. For my part I am tired of this state of things. What I want is good government. I do not care for a condition of affairs that is constantly shifting. We need a government that will be respected abroad and trusted at home. Either annexation to the United States or a protectorate. I prefer the former because of its greater stability. With annexation we should, of course, to a great degree enjoy the same condition of things that prevails in America. I have had enough of monarchy, and believe that the safety and prosperity of the country is dependent upon its annexation to the United States, and there are many of the intelligent native Hawaiians who agree with me in this opinion. The majority of my race are ignorant of what is really conducive to their best interests. It can not be a
-p1118-
matter of surprise that they look with fond recollections to the throne and the old institutions. The future seems so uncertain that they can not conceive what is in store for them, but when they find that they are treated justly under the new government, as they have been from the first day of its formation, and indorsed their attempts to effect organic union with the United States, they will quickly give it their confidence."

Senator Frye. Did you have an interview with Hon. A. Kahi?

Mr. Hoes. Yes.

Senator Frye. A prominent member of the last royal Hawaiian Legislature?

Mr. Hoes. Yes. Shall I read it?

Senator Frye. Yes.

"I am 53 years old. During all these years I have lived under the Hawaiian monarchy, that is, under Kamehameha III, IV, and V, Lunalilo, Kalakaua, and the late Queen Liliuokalani. I was personally acquainted with all of these rulers, but it was not until the reign of Kalakaua that I commenced to take an active part in public life. I was perfectly familiar with the whole of that monarch's career. During the first half of his reign he conducted the Government with some regard to decency, but during the latter half the native Hawaiian people strongly objected to his actions. During the whole of this period the voice of the common people was never heard or felt in the Legislature. The King's henchmen and creatures were elected through the power and influence of the Crown for the sole purpose of carrying out the wishes of the King, in utter disregard of the desires and rights of the masses of the Hawaiian people. The common people had no show whatever at the elections. The Government officials were everywhere instructed to compel the people to elect the King's favorites. During these years many self-respecting Hawaiians resisted the encroachments of absolutism and made a desperate, but unavailing, fight against overwhelming odds. Kalakaua controlled every district justice, assessor, tax-collector, sheriff, and all other Government officials, and, through them, controlled the polls and drowned the voice of the people. The rule of the late Queen has been just as rotten and corrupt as that of her brother Kalakaua. The greatest mistake of her reign was the fact that she exceeded her brother in seeking and acting upon the advice of the most unwise and corrupt counselors, and it was this mistake on her part that cost her her throne. I stand for the rights of the people and not for the rights of any privileged person.
"Monarchy is dead, and I am glad of it. I rejoice and am proud to support the Provisional Government, for it commands my perfect confidence, and I was the fifth person in the country to swear my alleigiance to it. What I desire is a firm and strong government, and I shall do everything to promote its stability. If we could have a stable republic, with President Dole at its head for four years, and his successor to hold office for the same length of time, it would be an ideal government, but if the present Provisional Government strongly advise annexation to the United States, as seems to be the fact, I shall heartily give it and the movement my support. My determination in this respect is fixed and unchangeable. There is no going backward; we must go forward. I believe that all those who will stop to think will agree with the views which I have expressed. I shall do everything in my power to show my constituents that these views are the only path to prosperity, and I believe that I shall succeed. The great mass of the Hawaiians are very poor, and some radical change must be made or they will be unable to obtain their means of livelihood.
-p1119-
There are foreign adventurers in this country, whose names I need not mention, who are cast down because by the recent change in public affairs they have lost the government pap. They are nothing but soreheads, and have grossly deceived and misled the native Hawaiians. Again, I say, I rejoice in the new order of things. I stated on the floor of the recent Legislature that the conduct of affairs under the late monarchy was thoroughly rotten. We have had quite enough of it, and it is my firm belief that the native Hawaiians will quickly recognize the recent government changes as a great blessing."

Mr. Hoes. I ought to say one word in connection with this.

Senator Gray. Were those notes made at the time of the conversation?

Mr. Hoes. That is what I was about to speak of. The fact is, Mr. Kauhi can not speak a word of English, yet this statement of his seems to read very smoothly. I had a friend with me when I called upon Mr. Kauhi, who understood the Hawaiian language as perfectly as he did the English. This friend talked to Kauhi, received his replies to his questions, and then communicated them to me in English. I took his statement home and wrote it out, and then took it to my friend and told him that I would not be satisfied with it until it was submitted to its author. I went back with my friend to Kauhi, who translated the statement to him, and Kauhi said it was correct.

Senator Frye. You stated you were studying the people for historical purposes?

Mr. Hoes. Yes; and also to learn contemporary opinion.

Senator Frye. Do you know R. W. Wilcox?

Mr. Hoes. Fairly well.

Senator Frye. Who is he?

Mr. Hoes. He is the man who figured so prominently and conspicuously in the revolution of 1887, and has mingled in politics more or less ever since, and was a member of the last Hawaiian Legislature.

Senator Frye. Do you know whether he was a witness before Mr. Blount or not?

Mr. Hoes. I do not know.

Senator Frye. Did you have an interview with Wilcox?

Mr. Hoes. Yes.

Senator Frye. Is this the interview? [Exhibiting the paper.]

Mr. Hoes. Yes.

Senator Frye. You may state when that was.

Mr. Hoes. Shortly after the revolution.

"INTERVIEW OF R. W. WILCOX WITH R. R. HOES, HONOLULU, JANUARY 27, 1893.
"What are your views, Mr. Wilcox, in regard to the present situation in general?
"Queen Liliuokalani brought these evils upon herself and the country both by her personal corruption, and that of her Government. She surrounded herself with bad advisers, and seemed determined to drive the nation to destruction. Good people had no influence over her whatever, for she indignantly refused to listen to them. I believe that if we can be annexed to the United States, the rights of all of our citizens, and especially those of the native Hawaiians, will be protected more carefully than they have ever been under the monarchy.
"What, in your opinion, is the personal feeling of the native Hawaiian element in this community?
-p1120-
"My countrymen, with the exception of the most intelligent among them, do not understand much about these things. They need to be educated. They have so often been told by designing men that the United States was their enemy that they are naturally suspicious. Politicians who have sought to use the natives simply as so many tools have deceived them. When they understand from the lips of disinterested men and patriots what annexation means, and become acquainted with the benefits that it will bring them, they will be as much in favor of the movement as any of our other classes of citizens.
"Does the present Provisional Government command the respect of the native Hawaiians?
"They are naturally somewhat prejudiced against it, as monarchy is the only form of Government with which they are familiar, but this feeling will quickly wear away as the Hawaiians are led to see that the Government is friendly to them and their interests. They already have confidence in the integrity and patriotism of President Dole.
"You advocated annexation to the United States, I believe, several months ago, in your newspaper, 'The Liberal?'
"Yes, and I have repeatedly done so in public meetings held in this city.
"How long do you think it would be after hoisting the American flag before the natives would be entirely reconciled?
"Almost immediately.
"Are you doing anything to instruct the natives so that they may have correct views in regard to these matters?
"Yes; but I am compelled to move cautiously or I shall lose my influence over them. I believe I am doing a good work by constantly conversing with them on the subject. I have told my countrymen that the monarchy is gone forever, and when they ask me what is the best thing to follow it I tell them annexation, and I firmly believe that in a very short time every Hawaiian will be in favor of that step. The great thing is to keep them from being influenced by the arguments of designing men who pretend to be their friends, but who are really their enemies-men who will try and use them as tools to accomplish their own corrupt and selfish plans. We have had too much of this and it is high time to call for a halt.
"Have you confidence in the integrity and patriotic intentions of the commission that has just been sent to Washington by the Provisional Government?
"It is made up of good men, and I believe they will endeavor to do what is for the best interests of the country.
"The above is correctly reported."
"R .W. Wilcox."

Senator Frye. That is signed by Mr. Wilcox?

Mr. Hoes. Signed by him personally, and read to him carefully before he signed it.

The Chairman. By whom?

Mr. Hoes. By me.

Senator Frye. The day that the Government buildings were taken possession of by the Provisional Government and the proclamation was read were there any United States troops in front of the Government building?

Mr. Hoes. I did not see any.

Senator Frye. Do you know where they were at the time?

Mr. Hoes. Yes.

-p1121-

Senator Frye. Where were they?

Mr. Hoes. In Arion Hall.

Senator Frye. Back in the yard?

Mr. Hoes. I can not say.

Senator Frye. They were not in sight of the Government building?

Mr. Hoes. I am sure I would have seen them if they could be seen from the front of the Government building, but I saw none.

Senator Frye. Do you know anything that the United States did to help or hinder either side?

Mr. Hoes. No.

Senator Frye. Did you ever hear any complaint?

Mr. Hoes. I never did, except that it was charged in a general way by the newspapers that she had been dethroned by Mr. Stevens and the United States forces.

Senator Frye. The Royalist press?

Mr. Hoes. Yes.

Senator Gray. And the Royalist people?

Mr. Hoes. I take it for granted that they made this charge, although I have no recollection of hearing any of them do so.

Senator Gray. You did not come in contact with them?

Mr. Hoes. Yes I did, I made it my study to associate with all classes.

Senator Gray. You did not come in contact with the Royalist people on that point?

Mr. Hoes. I have no recollection of that claim being put forward by them while I was there.

Senator Frye. Is this a copy of the act of the bill 185 granting a franchise to establish and maintain a lottery [exhibiting paper]?

Mr. Hoes. Yes; it is a copy of the original bill as introduced in the legislature. The bill referred to is as follows:

No. 185 z.
Introduced by______ .
First reading,______day of______, 1892.
Second reading, ______day of , ______1892.
Third reading, ________day of , _____1892.
AN ACT granting a franchise to establish and maintain a lottery.
Be it enacted by the Queen and the Legislature of the Hawaiian Kingdom:
Section 1. The exclusive franchise is hereby granted to D.H. Cross, of Chicago, Illinois, United States of America; W.B. Davenport, of St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America, and John Phillips, J.J. Williams, and Dr. Gilbert Foote, of Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, and their successors and assigns, or such corporation as may hereafter be incorporated or organized by them, to establish and maintain a lottery and to sell lottery, policy, and combination tickets, devices, and certificates and fractional parts thereof at terms and prices in just proportion to the prizes to be drawn, and to insure perfect fairness and justice in the distribution of the prizes, for the term of twenty-five (25) years.
Section 2. The majority of the said grantees, or if a corporation be formed, then a majority of the directors of said corporation shall be domiciled in Honolulu, and said business shall be conducted in the city

S. Doc. 231, pt 6----71

-p1122-
of Honolulu, on the island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, where all the drawings of said lottery shall take place.
Section 3. The said grantees and their successors and assigns shall pay for said franchise to the Hawaiian Government the sum of five hundred thousand ($500,000) dollars each year, in quarterly installments, at the end of each quarter after the announcement of the first drawing; that is to say, on the 31st day of March, the 30th day of June, the 30th day of September, and the 31st day of December, of each year.
Section 4. Said sum shall be devoted to the uses and purposes hereinafter set forth, and the minister of finance is hereby authorized to pay the same as herein provided, as long as the same is received for said franchise.
First. Subsidy to be paid for an ocean cable between the port of Honolulu and a port on the North American Continent connecting with any American telegraph system, one hundred thousand ($100,000) dollars per annum. This subsidy shall be paid in quarterly installments in the manner in which it is received, to such company with which the Hawaiian Government may enter into a contract under Chapter LXX of the session laws of 1890, and to commence after the sending of the first message over such cable, and to continue as long as such cable is maintained in working order.
Second. Subsidy to be paid for the construction and maintenance of a railroad around the island of Oahu, fifty thousand ($50,000) dollars per annum, to be paid to such company who may construct and maintain such railroad and during such time in which said railroad is kept in operation.
Third. Subsidy to be paid for the construction and maintenance of a railroad from Hilo, Island of Hawaii, through the districts of Hilo and Hamakua, fifty-thousand ($50,000) dollars per annum, to be paid during such period during which said railroad is kept in operation.
Fourth. For improving and maintaining the improvements of Honolulu Harbor, fifty thousand ($50,000) dollars per annum.
Fifth. For roads, bridges, landings, and wharves in the Hawaiian Kingdom, one hundred and seventy-five thousand ($175,000) dollars per annum, to be apportioned as follows: Island of Oahu, fifty thousand ($50,000) dollars; Island of Hawaii, sixty thousand ($60,000) dollars; Island of Maui, forty thousand ($40,000) dollars; Island of Kauai, twenty-five thousand ($25,000) dollars.
Sixth. For the encouragement of industries in the Hawaiian Kingdom, fifty thousand ($50,000) dollars per annum, to be disbursed as may be from time to time directed by the Legislature.
Seventh. For the encouragement of tourist travel and immigration, twenty-five thousand ($25,000) dollars per annum, to be disbursed as may be from time to time directed by the Legislature.
Eighth. If at any time during the existence of this franchise the provisions of the reciprocity treaty relating to Pearl Harbor should be abrogated, then the amounts mentioned in subdivisions fifth and seventh shall be used as a subsidy for the purpose of opening the harbor known as Pearl Harbor and erecting and maintaining dry docks and other improvements in said harbor.
Ninth. If for any reason any of the above subsidies can not be applied to the purposes herein set forth, then the sums so set apart shall be used as from time to time the Legislature may direct.
Section 5. The grantees and their successors and assigns shall be exempted from any and all taxes and license fees of any kind whatsoever upon or for said franchise, except the said sum of five hundred thousand ($500,000) dollars per annum, paid as aforesaid.
-p1123-
Section 6. The minister of the interior is hereby authorized to grant a charter of incorporation to the grantees of this franchise and their successors and assigns, in conformity with this act, and under the following conditions:
First. The capital stock of such corporation shall be five million ($5,000,000) dollars, represented by fifty thousand (50,000) shares of stock of one hundred ($100) dollars each, par value, provided the said capital stock may be increased to ten million ($10,000,000) dollars, represented by one hundred thousand (100,000) shares of par value of one hundred ($100) dollars each share.
Second. All powers of the corporation shall be vested in a board of directors to consist of five (5) persons, each of whom shall own at least five hundred (500) shares of the capital stock of the said corporation.
Third. The corporation shall be empowered to sue and be sued, to plead and be impleaded, to appear in any court of record or justice, and to do any other lawful act, such as any person or persons might do for their own defense, interest, or safety, in its corporate name.
Fourth. The president and secretary of the board of directors shall be the proper persons upon whom citations, notices, and other legal process shall be served.
Fifth. The corporation shall furnish bonds to the minister of finance in the sum of one hundred and twenty-five thousand ($125,000) dollars as surety for the prompt and punctual payment of the sums and in the manner set forth in section 3 (three) of this act; which bond shall be filed at the time when the first drawing and distribution of prizes is announced.
Sixth. The board of directors shall have power to establish as many agencies as may be necessary, and to appoint a president, superintendent, secretary and treasurer, and such clerks and agents as may be required, and may remove them at pleasure, fix salaries of all officers and employees of the corporation (except that of the commissioners appointed by the Queen, with the approval of the cabinet as hereinafter provided), and fix the amount of their respective bonds and sureties, and shall make and establish such rules and by-laws for the proper management and regulation of the affairs of the corporation as may be necessary and proper. A majority of the board of directors shall be necessary to constitute a quorum, and shall have power to remove any officer of the company. The board of directors shall have power to fill any vacancy that may occur by death, resignation, or removal.
Seventh. At all meetings held for election of directors or for any other purpose, every stockholder whose name is entered upon the books of the company as such, and none other, shall be entitled, either directly or by proxy, to cast one vote for each share of capital stock held by him. All transfers of stock shall be made and entered on the books of the company.
Eighth. The persons named in the first clause of this act shall be, and they are hereby, constituted the first board of directors, who shall at their first meeting appoint one of their number president, and the said board shall serve for two (2) years from the time this incorporation takes effect, and thereafter until their successors are elected and qualified, at the expiration of which term a meeting of the stockholders for the election of a board of directors shall be held on a day fixed for all elections thereafter. A two-thirds (2/3) vote shall be necessary to constitute an election, and if no election be held, the meeting will adjourn over one (1) year.
-p1124-
Ninth. There shall be two (2) commissioners appointed by the Queen with the approval of the cabinet, who shall hold office during the pleasure of the Queen and cabinet. The duties of said commissioners shall be to preside at all Lottery drawings and to superintend the same and secure perfect fairness in the allotment of prizes in each scheme. The salary of said commissioners shall be six thousand ($6,000) dollars per annum each, payable out of the treasury of the corporation in quarterly installments. The said commissioners shall not own or be interested in the capital stock of the said corporation, nor purchase nor own any ticket or tickets, devices, certificates, or fractional parts thereof.
Tenth. All drawings of lotteries under this act shall be made public, admission free, and it shall be compulsory upon said company to hold annually twelve (12) regular drawings, and as many additional special drawings as the directors of said company may designate;
Eleventh. The stockholders of the capital stock of the corporation shall be liable to the creditors of said corporation to the amount of the shares by them respectively held.
Twelfth. The corporation shall present a full and accurate account or exhibit of the state of its affairs to the minister of the interior, on the first day of January of each and every year.
Thirteenth. At the expiration of this franchise, three (3) commissioners shall be elected by the stockholders, whose duty it shall be to liquidate its affairs on such terms and in such manner as shall be determined by a majority vote as set forth in subdivision eight of section 6 (six) of this act.
Section 7. Any person selling, offering or exposing for sale after the 31st day of December, 1892, any lottery or policy, or combination ticket or tickets, or devices or certificates or fractional parts thereof, except as authorized by this act, or in violation of this act, or in violation of the rights and privileges herein granted, shall be liable, upon conviction thereof to a fine not exceeding five thousand ($5,000) dollars, nor less than five hundred ($500) dollars for each and every offence, and all police and district courts of this Kingdom shall have jurisdiction in such cases.
Section 8. The grantees of this franchise and their successors and assigns, shall have the right during the whole term of said franchise, to dispose of by lottery or a series of lotteries, any land, improved or unimproved, which said corporation may become possessed of by purchase or otherwise in the Hawaiian Islands, but such lands shall be disposed of by special drawings only, which shall be advertised as drawings for property.
Section 9. The grantees of this franchise and their successors and assigns, are hereby given the right of uninterrupted passage through the mails of the Hawaiian postal system, of all written and printed matter relating to or connected with the business of said lottery upon paying current rates of postage therefor.
Section 10. This act shall take effect from and after its approval, and all acts and parts of acts in conflict with the same are hereby repealed.

Senator Frye. Do you think that the Provisional Government would have succeeded in accomplishing its purpose of overthrowing the Queen and taking possession of the Government buildings if there had been no United States troops there?

Mr. Hoes. I have not the slightest doubt they would have done so. If they had not, others would have done it for them. But these are among the strongest men in the community, and in the whole country.

-p1125-

Senator Frye. The Provisional Government was formed on the 17th of January, and you left the next March?

Mr. Hoes. Yes.

Senator Frye. What was the condition of affairs in the Hawaiian Islands after the Provisional Government was formed?

Mr. Hoes. Absolute quietness.

Senator Frye. Any apparent unrest on the part of the opponents of it?

Mr. Hoes. None, except what was expressed in the Royalist paper, the Bulletin. The city was just as quiet as any country town in New England.

Senator Frye. Is that Government qualified to maintain itself?

Mr. Hoes. I am quite sure of it.

Senator Frye. Are you acquainted with the members of the committee of safety?

Mr. Hoes. Most of them. Of the 14 whose names are attached to the proclamation establishing the Provisional Government I am personally acquainted with all but 1.

Senator Frye. What is the character of these men?

Mr. Hoes. I believe they represent in every respect the best element in the country.

Senator Frye. Reliable men?

Mr. Hoes. I believe them all to be.

Senator Frye. Do you know Sam Parker, Colburn, and Cornwell?

Mr. Hoes. I know Sam Parker and I know Cornwell.

Senator Frye. Did you know our minister, Mr. Stevens?

Mr. Hoes. Very intimately.

Senator Frye. What was your estimate of him?

Mr. Hoes. I always regarded him as a remarkable man.

Senator Frye. As an honest man?

Mr. Hoes. As a conservative, honest, conscientious man; a man who never, under any circumstances, lost his head; a man who never acted under impulse. I sustained confidential relations with Mr. Stevens. I think I had his implicit confidence, and I know that he had mine.

Senator Frye. Did you ever learn from Mr. Stevens that he intended to interfere with the government of the Queen or the Provisional Government?

Mr. Hoes. I never learned it from him, and I flatter myself if he had told any of his associates of the fact he would have told me, because we often conversed confidentially about Hawaiian matters.

Senator Frye. In your opinion was the request made by the minister upon Capt. Wiltse to land the troops on Monday wise and discreet?

Mr. Hoes. I think it was.

Senator Frye. Were you there when Mr. Blount was there?

Mr. Hoes. No.

Senator Frye. You understand the purpose of this committee is to obtain whatever information it can, especially in reference to what took place after the revolution and the establishment of the Provisional Government. Can you think of anything you wish to say that will be information to the committee?

Mr. Hoes. I do not recall anything in particular.

Senator Gray. Where are you from, what State?

Mr. Hoes. New York.

Senator Gray. As I understand, you are a chaplain in the Navy.

Mr. Hoes. In the U. S. Navy.

-p1126-

Senator Gray. You were on those islands, for the reasons that you have described, from what date?

Mr. Hoes. From the 25th of September, 1891, until the 9th of March, 1893.

Senator Gray. You were there long enough to become very well acquainted with the residents of the island and the people, as you have related?

Mr. Hoes. Yes.

Senator Gray. Did you ever observe any considerable annexation sentiment before the emeute of January, 1893?

Mr. Hoes. I observed a very general opinion held by the prominent people there, that annexation was the ultimate solution of the Hawaiian question, but I did not observe any particular sentiment as to when that event would take place.

Senator Gray. Was that a growing sentiment among the American population, so called?

Mr. Hoes. I do not know whether it was growing; it seemed to be generally prevalent.

Senator Gray. I mean during the time you were there?

Mr. Hoes. Yes.

Senator Gray. Was it understood by you during the Saturday and Monday and Tuesday, which were the eventful ones in this revolution, there was a movement for annexation?

Mr. Hoes. I do not believe the people knew or cared what it was for, so long as it resulted in the establishment of good government. I believe the people reposed such absolute confidence in the committee of safety that they would follow them through fire and water.

Senator Gray. What people?

Mr. Hoes. I mean the people who desired law and order and good government.

Senator Gray. That is the portion that started the Provincial Government at the time?

Mr. Hoes. Yes, the portion that started it, and subsequently upheld it.

Senator Gray. Was it not a fact, in your own observation, that on Monday and Tuesday, particularly Tuesday, it was mooted about that this movement was an annexation movement as a fact?

Mr. Hoes. I have not any recollection that it was.

Senator Gray. One of the gentlemen who was a member of the committee of safety and was active in the military operations and has testified before the committee, in stirring up the people, as he was active in doing, he found that he could not do it until he told them it was for annexation to the United States. Have you any knowledge on that subject?

Mr. Hoes. I have no recollection of hearing that talked about at that time. The feeling of the people was simply as I have described it. It was such an intense desire to be rid of royalty, as it had existed and acted in Hawaii, that any solution would have been accepted if advocated by the committee of safety.

Senator Gray. Did you not understand that the proclamation of the Provisional Government declared that it would be established until annexation should be declared between the islands and the United States.

Mr. Hoes. I believe it was so expressed, but, I believe the meaning intended by that phrase----

Senator Gray. Do you not know that Mr. Thurston has always been an ardent annexationist??

-p1127-

Mr. Hoes. I have heard Mr. Thurston make a great many addresses in the Legislature, but I never heard him use a phrase advocating annexation.

Senator Gray. Would you expect to hear him in the Legislature?

Mr. Hoes. The Legislature was made up of a band of honest men on one side, pitted against an unprincipled rabble on the other. Mr. Thurston was never afraid to express his honest convictions at any proper time, or in any fitting place, and, had he so chosen, he would nave been as willing to advocate annexation in the Legislature as upon the public rostrum.

Senator Gray. Did you expect him to advocate annexation in their Legislature?

Mr. Hoes. Yes; openly, at the proper time, had he seen fit.

Senator Gray. Why would he do it?

Mr. Hoes. I do not believe that those who might have been in favor of annexation thought the time was ripe for it. That leads me to say that, in my opinion, twenty-four hours, or even ten hours previous to the prorogation of that Legislature the idea of annexation as an event soon to be consummated never entered the head of any man composing the present Government and its band of officials, not even Thurston's.

Senator Gray. Many things that occurred within the course of the revolution, so called, so far as its time is concerned, but after the revolution, after the events commenced to shape themselves, did not you understand that annexation was a part of it?

Mr. Hoes. I did not until the proclamation was read by the Provisional Government.

Senator Gray. Were you present at the meetings of the committee of safety?

Mr. Hoes. Never.

Senator Gray. Were you not consulted by persons who were active in that revolution?

Mr. Hoes. What do you mean by consultation?

Senator Gray. As to their plans.

Mr. Hoes. No; I was in total ignorance of them.

Senator Gray. You were not in the movement?

Mr. Hoes. No.

Senator Gray. Did you see Mr. Stevens during those three days?

Mr. Hoes. I am unable to say, but very likely I did.

Senator Gray. But you have no distinct recollection? You could not say that you saw him at that time?

Mr. Hoes. I could not swear to it.

Senator Gray. And you can not speak of your own knowledge of his conduct during the period of which I have been speaking-three days?

Mr. Hoes. No; if you mean personal knowledge-knowledge that I would derive from Mr. Stevens himself.

Senator Gray. What lawyers call personal knowledge.

Mr. Hoes. No.

Adjourned to meet on notice.


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