DIPLOMATIC RECOGNITION OF THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT

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On pp. 1103-1111 Senator Frye introduced into the Morgan Report record the full text of the letters of recognition sent to the Provisional Government and published in the newspapers as collected by Mr. Hoes: letters of recognition from the Honolulu consulates representing Chile, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Mexico, Russia, Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, Spain, Japan, Italy, Portugal, Britain, United States, Denmark, Belgium, China, Peru, France. (most were dated January 18, 1894). Mr. Hoes testifies that he believes British consul Wodehouse was probably the first to give oral informal recognition to the Provisional Government, although the official letter was delayed until January 19 -- Hoes was present when Wodehouse whispered into President Dole's ear on January 17 at about 4 PM, and an hour later Hoes had a conversation with Wodehouse during which Wodehouse said he had recognized the Dole government.

CONSULATE OF CHILE,

Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, January 18, 1893.

GENTLEMEN: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of yesterday's date, together with a copy of the proclamation issued yesterday, whereby I am informed, for reasons set forth, the Hawaiian monarchy has been abrogated and a provisional government established, the same being now in possession of Government departmental buildings, the archives, and the treasury, and whereby you request me to recognize the said Provisional Government

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as the de facto Government on behalf of the Government of Chile, and to afford to it the moral support of my Government.

In response I have the honor to say that I comply with the above request and recognize the said Provisional Government as the de facto Government of the Hawaiian Islands, so far as my authority as consul for Chile may permit me to act for and on behalf of the Government of the Republic of Chile in the premises.

I have the honor to be, gentlemen,

Your very obedient servant,

F. A. SCHAEFER, Consul for Chile.

Hons. SANFORD B. DOLE, J. A. KING, P. C. JONES, W. O. SMITH, Executive Council of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands.

AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN CONSULATE, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS,

Honolulu, January 18, 1893.

To the Executive Council of the Provisional Government in Hawaii, Messrs. Sanford B. Dole, J. A. King, P. C. Jones, and Willinm 0. Smith:

GENTLEMEN : I have the honor to own receipt of your esteemed favor of yesterday's date, and hereby take much pleasure to recognize and acknowledge on behalf of the Austro-Hungarian Government the present Government of the Hawaiian Islands, and that I shall do all in my power to further and support the same.

I have the honor to be, gentlemen, your most obedient servant.

H. P. GLADE, Austro-Hungarian Consul.

HONOLULU, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, January 18, 1893.

GENTLEMEN : I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your communication of yesterday's date, together with a copy of the proclamation issued yesterday, informing me that for reasons set forth the Hawaiian monarchy has been abrogated, and a Provisional Government established, and requesting me to recognize the said Provisional Government as the de facto Government of the Hawaiian Islands, and to afford to it the moral support of my Government.

In answer, I have the honor to state that I comply with the above request, and recognize the said Provisional Government as the de facto Government of the Hawaiian Islands, within the scope of my authority.

I have the honor to be, gentlemen, your obedient servant,

H. RENJES, Consul for Mexico.

Hons. SANFORD B. DOLE, J. A. KING, P. C. JONES, W. O. SMITH, Executive Council of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands.

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VICE-CONSULATE OF RUSSIA, Honolulu, January 18, 1893.

SIRS : I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your communication of 17th inst., and in reply beg to inform you that I take pleasure to recognize the Provisional Government of Hawaii as defined in the proclamation inclosed in your letter, on behalf of the Government of Russia, and I shall afford to it my moral support as representative of the country last named.

I have the honor to be, sirs, your most obedient servant,

J. F. HACKFELD, Acting Vice-Consul.

Messrs. SANFORD B. DOLE, J. A. KING, P. C. JONES, WILLIAM O. SMITH, Executive Council of the Provisional Government of Hawaii, Honolulu.


CONSULATE OF THE NETHERLANDS, Honolulu, January 18, 1893.

SIR : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the communication of the executive council of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands announcing the abrogation of the Hawaiian monarchy, of your possession of the Government, departmental buildings, the archives, and the treasury, as well as being in control of the city. Added to the above is your request for the official recognition of the existing de facto Government of the Hawaiian Islands on behalf of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which I have the honor to represent, and to give you the moral support of my Government.

In reply I take pleasure in assuring the gentlemen of the executive council, that I cordially extend to them full assent to their claim for recognition, and of my intention to add such moral support as may come within the scope of my consular authority.

I have the honor to be, gentlemen, your very obedient servant,

JOHN H. PATY, Consul for the Netherlands.

Messrs. S. B. DOLE, J. A. KING, P. C. JONES, W. O. SMITH, Executive Council, Hawaiian Provisional Government, etc.

IMPERIAL GERMAN CONSULATE, Hawaiian Islands, Honolulu, January 18, 1893.

To the Executive Council of the Provisional Government in Haivaii, Messrs. Sanford B. Dole, J. A. King, P. C. Jones, W. 0. Smith:

GENTLEMEN : I have the honor to own receipt of your esteemed favor of yesterday's date, and hereby take much pleasure to recognize and acknowledge on behalf of the Government of Germany the present Government of the Hawaiian Islands, and that I shall do all in my power to further and support the same.

I have the honor to be, gentlemen, your most obedient servant,

H. F. GLADE, Imperial German Consul.

S. Doc. 231, pt 6------ 70

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KONGL SWENSTA OCH WORSTA KONSULATET, Honolulu, January 18,1893.

GENTLEMEN : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your Excellency's communication of January 17 informing me that the Hawaiian monarchy has been abrogated and that a provisional Government has been established in Hawaii for reasons set forth in a proclamation, of which you sent me a copy; also that such Provisional Government has been proclaimed, is now in possession of the governmental departmental buildings, the archives and the treasury, and is in control of the city.

In reply to your request to recognize the Provisional Government and afford it the moral support of my Government, I beg to say that I do recognize it as the existing de facto government of the Hawaiian Islands, and that I shall report to my Government immediately.

I have the honor to remain, your excellencies', your most obedient servant,

H. W. SCHMIDT.


HONOLULU, January 18, 1893.

GENTLEMEN: I have the honor to own the receipt of your communication of yesterday's date, together with a copy of the proclamation issued yesterday, informing me that for reasons set forth the Hawaiian monarchy has been abrogated and a Provisional Government established, and requesting me to recognize the said Provisional Government on behalf of the Spanish Government as the existing de facto government of the Hawaiian Islands, and to afford to it the moral support of my Government.

In response, I have the honor to say that I comply with the above request and recognize the said Provisional Government as the de facto government of the Hawaiian Islands within the scope of my authority.

I have the honor to be, gentlemen, your most obedient servant,

H. RENJES,

Vice-Consul for Spain.

Hons. SANFORD B. DOLE,

J. A. KING, P. C. JONES,

W. O. SMITH,

Executive Council of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands.


HIS IMPERIAL JAPANESE MAJESTY'S CONSULATE-GENERAL, Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, January 19, 1893.

GENTLEMEN: The receipt of your communication, dated the 17th instant, inclosing a copy of proclamation issued on the same day, informing me that for reasons set forth in said proclamation the Hawaiian monarchy has been abrogated and a Provisional Government established, which is now in possession of the Government departmental buildings, the archives, and the treasury, and requesting me on behalf of H. I. J. M.'s Government to recognize said Provisional Government as the de facto Government of the Hawaiian Islands, pending the receipt

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of instructions from H. I. J. M.'s Government, to whom advices of your action and of the position which I have taken in relation thereto have been despatched.

I have the honor to be, gentlemen, your obedient servant,

SUBURO FUJII,

Agent and Consul-General.

Hons. SANFORD B. DOLE, J. A. KING, P. C. JONES, WM. O. SMITH, Executive Council of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands.


HONOLULU, January 18, 1893.

GENTLEMEN : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of yesterday's date, together with a copy of the proclamation issued yesterday, whereby you inform me that for reasons set forth the Hawaiian monarchy has been abrogated and a Provisional Government established, the same being now in possession of the Government departmental buildings, the archives, and the treasury, and whereby you request me to recognize the said Provisional Government on behalf of the Government of Italy as the existing de facto Government of the Hawaiian Islands and to afford to it the moral support of my Government.

In response I have the honor to say that I comply with the above request, and recognize the said Provisional Government as the de facto Government of the Hawaiian Islands so far as my authority as consul for Italy may permit me to act for and on behalf of His Italian Majesty's Government in the premises.

I have the honor to be, gentlemen, your very obedient servant,

P. A. SCHAEFER,

Consul for Italy.

Hons. SANFORD B. DOLE, J. A. KING, P. C. JONES, and W. O. SMITH, Executive Council of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands.


[Translation.]

CONSULATE-GENERAL OF PORTUGAL IN HAWAII, Honolulu, January 18, 1893.

SIR: You inform me by your letter of the 17th instant that, for the reason set forth in the proclamation which accompanies it, the Hawaiian monarchy has been abrogated and that a Provisional Government, which has been established in its place, is at this moment in possession of the Government buildings and master of the capital. Under these circumstances I recognize the Provisional Government as being the de facto Government of Hawaii, and I hasten to submit the decision I have just taken to my Government.

Accept, sir, the assurance of my very distinguished consideration.

A. DE SOUZA CANAVARRO,

Consul-General and Charge d'Affaires of Portugal.

Monsieur S. B. DOLE, President of the Executive Council of the Provisional Government.

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BRITISH LEGATION,

Honolulu, January 19,1893.

GENTLEMEN : The receipt of your communication of the 17th instant is acknowledged, together with a copy of the proclamation, informing me that for reasons set forth in said proclamation the Hawaiian monarchy has been abrogated, and a Provisional Government established, and whereby you ask me to recognize the said Provisional Government on behalf of Her Britannic Majesty's Government as the existing de facto Government, and to afford it the moral support of my Government.

In reply, I beg to say that I recognize the Provisional Government as the existing de facto Government pending instructions from my Government.

I am, gentlemen, your obedient servant,

JAMES H. WODEHOUSE,

H. B. M.'s Minister Resident.

To the Members of the Executive Council of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands, Honolulu.

UNITED STATES LEGATION,

Honolulu, Hiwaiian Islands, January 17, 1893.

A provisional government having been duly constituted in place of the recent Government of Queen Lilioukalani, and said Provisional Government being in full possession of the Government buildings, the archives, and the treasury, and in control of the capital of the Hawaiian Islands, I hereby recognize said Provisional Government as the de facto Government of the Hawaiian Islands.

JOHN L. STEVENS,

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States.

ROYAL DANISH CONSULATE,

Honolulu, January 18,1893.

SIRS : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of yesterday's date, inclosing a copy of proclamation issued last evening, informing me, that for reasons set forth in said proclamation, the Hawaiian Monarchy has been abrogated and a provisional government established, which is now in possession of the Government departmental buildings, the archives, and the treasury, and requesting me, on behalf of the Government of Denmark, to recognize said Provisional Government as the de facto government of the Hawaiian Islands, and to accord to it the moral support of my Government.

In reply, I have the honor to state that I hereby comply with the above request, recognizing the said Provisional Government as the de facto government of the Hawaiian Islands, to the extent that my authority will allow me to act, pending a reply from my Government.

I have the honor to be, sirs, yours, most obediently,

E. C. MACFARLANE,

Acting Vice-Consul for Denmark.

Messrs. SANFORD B. DOLE,

J. A. KING,

P. C. JONES,

WILLIAM O. SMITH,

Executive Council of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands.

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CONSULATE OF BELGIUM, January 18,1893.

SIRS: I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your communication of 17th instant, and in reply beg to inform you that I take pleasure to recognize the Provisional Government of Hawaii as defined in the proclamation inclosed in your letter on behalf of the Government of Belgium, and I shall to it my moral support as representative of the country last named.

I have the honor to be, sirs, your most obedient servant,

J. HACKFELD,

Consul.

Messrs. SANFORD B. DOLE,

J. A. KING,

P. C. JONES,

WILLIAM O. SMITH,

Executive Council of the Provisional Government of Hawaii, Honolulu.

CHINESE COMMERCIAL AGENCY,

Honolulu, January 18, 1893.

GENTLEMEN : We have the honor to acknowledge a receipt of your circular letter of the 17th instant covering a copy of the proclamation issued yesterday, whereby you inform us that the Hawaiian monarchy has been abrogated and a provisional government established, the latter being now in possession of the Government departmental buildings, the archives, and the treasury, and whereby you request us to recognize the said Provisional Government on behalf of the Government of the Empire of China as the existing de facto government of the Hawaiian Islands and to afford to it the moral support of our Government.

In answer we have the honor to say that we comply with your request and recognize the said Provisional Government as the de facto government of the Hawaiian Islands so far as our authority as commercial agents of China may allow us to act for and on behalf of His Imperial Chinese Majesty's Government.

We have the honor to be, gentlemen, your most obedient servants,

Goo KIM,

Chinese Commercial Agent.

WONG KWAI,

Assistant Chinese Commercial Agent.

Hons. SANFORD B. DOLE,

J. A. KING,

P. C. JONES,

WILLIAM O. SMITH,

Executive Council of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands.

OFFICE OF THE PERUVIAN CONSULATE,

Honolulu, January 18, 1893.

GENTLEMEN: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your valued communication of the 17th instant, inclosing a copy of the proclamation then issued, wherein it is set forth that the Hawaiian monarchy has been abrogated and a provisional government established.

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You request me to recognize said government on behalf of the Government of Peru as the de facto government of the Hawaiian Islands, and to afford to it the moral support of my Government.

I have the honor to state, in reply, that I take pleasure in complying with your request, and I hereby recognize the said government as the de facto government of the Hawaiian Islands, in so far as my authority in the premises will permit. I have the honor to remain, gentlemen, your most obedient servant,

BRUCE CARTWRIGHT,

Consul for Peru.

Hons. SANFORD B. DOLE,

J. A. KING,

P. C. JONES,

WM. O. SMITH,

Members of the Executive Council of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands.

[Translation.]

CONSULATE AND COMMISSARIAT OF FRANCE IN HAWAII,

Honolulu, January 18,1893.

SIR: I have received the letter dated the 17th of this month by which you inform me that for the reasons indicated in the text of the proclamation which you handed to me on the same day, the members of the executive council, of which you are a part, have proclaimed, yesterday, the abrogation of the Hawaiian monarchy and the establishment of a provisional government.

In acknowledging the receipt of this communication I at once inform you that I have informed my Government of the events which have just taken place in this archipelago, adding that I recognize the actual condition of affairs pending instruction.

Accept, sir, the assurances of my most distinguished consideration,

VlZZAVONA.

Monsieur DOLE,

President of the Executive Council of the Provisional Government, Honolulu.

Senator GRAY. Were these printed contemporaneously with their recognition?

Mr. HOES. Yes. If it is desired I can state a very interesting point that I happen to know from personal knowledge in regard to the English recognition.

The CHAIRMAN. We are trying to ascertain when it was.

Mr. HOES. I was present in the room of the Provisional Government the first afternoon it was organized.

The CHAIRMAN. What date was that?

Mr. HOES. Saturday being the 14th, that was the 17th, Tuesday.

Senator GRAY. You were where?

Mr. HOES. As I said, I was present in the room of the Provisional Government the afternoon it held its first meeting, and while I was there the English commissioner, Maj. Wodehouse, came into the room and had a whispered conversation with President Dole which could not be heard, at least by me, and I do not think by anyone except the President. A short time after that, probably within one hour, I had

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a short conversation with Maj. Wodehouse on the porch of the Government house in which he told me that he had recognized the Provisional Government. I suppose, of course, the inference was he had done it informally. I state this because there was a delay of twentyfour hours, or more, before he recognized the Government in writing. While his formal recognition was not made as early as those of the other representatives in Honolulu, he was in reality the first to recognize the new government, with the possible exception of the U.S. minister, Mr. Stevens.

Senator FRYE. Were you there when Mr. Stevens sent in his recognition?

Mr. HOES. I suppose I was, but I cannot swear positively as to that.

Senator FRYE. But you think Mr. Wodehouse was the first one?

Mr. HOES. I do not know whether he preceded or succeeded Mr. Stevens.

Senator FRYE. What time was it that you were there and Mr. Wodehouse was there?

Mr. HOES. If I were asked what time Mr. Wodehouse had the whispered conversation with Mr. Dole I could not swear to it, but I should venture to say not far from 4 o'clock—in fact, probably after 4 o'clock.

The CHAIRMAN. Will you allow me to inquire what sort of a man Mr. Dole is? Give your description as you understand him. I would like to know something about his character and temper.

Mr. HOES. I am personally and intimately acquainted with President Dole. I regard him as mentally, morally, intellectually, and I may add, physically, one of the finest types of men I have ever met. He is broad minded; he is conservative; he is dispassionate; and I believe I state the opinion of most men in that country when I say that he is more highly looked up to and respected than any other man in public and political life in that country.

The CHAIRMAN. From your knowledge of his character and bearing, would you suppose that he would be engaged in a mere adventure for revolutionizing the country for the purpose of getting political power into his hands?

Mr. HOES. I do not think that any such thought or suggestion could enter the mind of any man living in Honolulu or the Hawaiian kingdom.

The CHAIRMAN. As to Dole?

Mr. HOES. As to President Dole.

Senator FRYE. Were you there from the 1st of January, 1893, until after the revolution?

Mr. HOES. I was.

Senator FRYE. You may state, if you please, what you observed as taking place in the Legislature of the Hawaiian Islands during the month of December preceding the revolution.

Mr. HOES. That is a pretty broad question. It was a continuous scene of disordry and disgracefulness.

Senator FRYE. In what particular?

Mr. HOES. Bribery, undignified wrangle, and a perpetual fight to upset one ministry and to replace it with another.

Senator FRYE. What ministry were they undertaking to upset?

Mr. HOES. I could not carry the names of the various ministers composing the several cabinets in my mind any more than I could the movements of the men in a game of chess.

Senator FRYE. You know the Wilcox-Jones cabinet?

Mr. HOES. Yes.