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Senator Gray. Were the Islands in a state of business depression while you were there, or otherwise?

Mr. Delamater. Business depression.

Senator Gray.To what was that attributed?

Mr. Delamater. To the McKinley bill.

Senator Gray. That that the McKinley bill made sugar free?

Mr. Delamater. Yes.

Senator Gray. And deprived the grower of the advantage that he had when there was a tax?

Mr. Delamater. Yes.

Senator Gray. And you say that the change in that condition of things was the principal cause of the business depression?

Mr. Delamater. Yes; I think so. Of course you know a doctor is not a business man, usually, and I just got a sort of impression.

Senator Gray. Were the sugar growers Annexationists, with the exception of Mr. Spreckles?

Mr. Delamater. I judge that before I came away they were. But I got the impression very strongly in my mind that the sugar growers were opposed to it at the start. I did not talk with a great many of them; but I got that impression at the start.

Senator Gray. What impression did you finally get?

Mr. Delamater. My final impression was, that, in common with others, they were in favor of it.


Senator Frye. State your age and occupation.

Mr. Day. I am 34 years old and a practitioner of medicine.

Senator Frye. Where?

Mr. Day. My residence is Honolulu.

Senator Frye. How long have you been at Honolulu?

Mr. Day. I located there in the fall of 1887 and have been a resident ever since that time until last August. I left there for this country at that time.

Senator Frye. Were you there at the time Kalakaua was compelled to assent to the constitution of 1887?

Mr. Day. I was in the city at the time, but not a resident.

Senator Frye. Were you a witness to what took place then?

Mr. Day. No.

Senator Frye. Are you acquainted with the people of the islands?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Frye. Has your residence been all this time at Honolulu?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Frye. I will bring you down now to the few weeks preceding what is known as the last revolution, and you may state what you saw going on, and what you knew in the Legislature and elsewhere.

Mr. Day. Politically there was a great deal of interest in the conflict which was going on in the Legislature for some few months before the revolution of January, 1893. The struggle seemed to be between the Queen and her supporters and the opposition, to establish a precedent which would make the sovereign appoint the cabinet from a majority of the Legislature-that is, by calling a leader of the majority of the Legislature, and he select his associates, and she confirm them; the Queen and her party, on the other hand, attempting to have the appointing power purely a personal prerogative of her own, ignoring, in


other words, the majority of the Legislature and selecting whom she chose for the cabinet. The fight was a long and bitter one until, I think it was, in November, when she yielded to the opposition so far as to call a member of the opposition Mr. G. N. Wilcox to form her cabinet-known as the Wilcox cabinet. That cabinet was formed by the Legislature and was composed of Mr. Wilcox, Mr. P.C. Jones, Mr. Mark Robinson, and Cecil Brown, and practically, for the first time since the Legislature had convened some months before, they got down to a working basis and things went along smoothly until two or three days before the close of the Legislature, when the country was taken by surprise to find that the Wilcox cabinet had been put out by vote of want of confidence, and the appointment by the Queen of a cabinet on her old plan of simply personal authority. That cabinet was composed of Samuel Parker, W. H. Cornwell, J. F. Colburn, and A. P. Peterson, if I remember rightly.

That cabinet did not possess the confidence of the business community, and they were consequently disappointed at the selection. The following day, I think, the Legislature passed what was known as the lottery bill, legalizing the establishment of a lottery in Honolulu-a bill that had been brought before the Legislature in the earlier months of the session and had aroused a good deal of public opposition. The opposition was so strong that it was, for a time, at least, withdrawn or laid aside, and the community supposed for good. But it was rushed through the third reading and the Queen signed the bill, making it law, during the last days of the Legislature; I do not remember the exact date. The opium bill was passed in very much the same way, licensing the sale of opium. It is needless to say that the community was aroused almost to the point of desperation, certainly of the deepest indignation, over these rapidly succeeding acts of the Queen and her party.

On Saturday, the 14th of January, the Legislature was prorogued in the usual form, and immediately after that the Queen attempted to promulgate-or rather attempted to overthrow the existing constitution and promulgate a new one which made certain radical changes in the form of the Government.

Senator Frye. When the Jones-Wilcox cabinet was formed and the lottery and opium bills had been defeated, before the Boston left the harbor on the trip down to Hilo, had everything settled down to quiet?

Mr. Day. Everything was supposed to be settled when the Wilcox cabinet went into office and the machinery of Government was going on for the two months that they held office. Their dismissal, I think, on a vote of want of confidence was a complete surprise to the community.

Senator Frye. So that there was no expectation of any difficulty at the time the Boston left the harbor and went down to Hilo?

Mr. Day. None whatever.

Senator Frye.That was supposed to be settled for the next eighteen months-during the life of the Legislature?

Mr. Day.Yes.

Senator Frye. When the Boston left and there took place what you were going to state-the Queen attempted to form a new constitution?

Mr. Day. The news of that attempt spread through the community with great rapidity, and business men, property holders, professional men of the community, all felt that it meant a crisis in the country's history. The feeling was so intense that it was a spontaneous sentiment that something radical would have to be done. In a hurried way a number of business and professional men met at a central location in the city


(W. O. Smith's office) to discuss the situation, and it was there decided that they should appoint a committee of thirteen (which has become a historical number in Hawaiian affairs), to devise ways and means of correcting what they considered abuses of the Crown, and to take such measures as they thought necessary for that purpose. The feeling in the community was one of unrest, and the most intense excitement prevailed during the day, the following day, and the Monday succeeding, and the Tuesday following the Monday. Nothing was accomplished, so far as I know, on Sunday; but Monday morning an announcement was made that there would be a mass meeting held in the afternoon by the citizens in favor of good government.

Senator Frye. Was that a public announcement?

Mr. Day. A public announcement; yes. Accordingly, at 2 o'clock in the afternoon, the meeting was held in the armory on Beretania street. That meeting was attended by the white men of the community, mostly of all classes and nationalities. There must have been, I should judge, 1,200 or 1,300 men there, and it was an exceedingly quiet meeting. You could tell by the expression of the men's faces that they understood that it was a matter of extreme importance and gravity which confronted them. At this meeting the speakers related the political history of the country for the last few months, and also a report of the committee was made, and speeches which incited the men to their duty as citizens who wanted to preserve their civil liberties. The action of the committee in calling the meeting was ratified, with only one dissenting voice, and also ordering the committee to go on still further and take such measures as they thought necessary for the maintenance of government and the protection of life and property. The meeting adjourned about 4 o'clock in the afternoon, everyone feeling that we were on the eve of a crisis. That evening the news came to me that the monarchy was to be abrogated and that there was to be the establishment of a a provisional form of government.

Senator Gray. When was that?

Mr. Day. That was Monday evening; and I think the word was passed around pretty generally among the supporters of the Reform party, as it was called. That evening about 5 o'clock troops from the Boston were landed, and a detachment was sent to the legation, the consulate, and Mr. Atherton's grounds on King street. The latter detachment was afterward removed to Arion Hall. That night I remember being aroused by the alarm of fire. It turned out to be a small affair, supposed to be of incendiary origin, on Emma Street.

Senator Gray. An outbuilding, was it not?

Mr. Day. That is my recollection-that it was an outbuilding. It was a small fire. On the following day we understood that at a given signal those who were in favor of the movement were to meet at the Honolulu Rifles' armory, and with arms, and proceed upon the Government building. I was returning from making a professional call shortly after 2 o'clock in the afternoon, and passed the armory. I saw the men collecting there----

Senator Gray. You say that they were notified. Were you one of those who were notified?

Mr. Day. No. I saw a friend coming toward the armory. I asked him what was the matter, and asked if the signal was given, and he said that Goode had shot a policeman and they were going to proceed at once; so I put my horse away and put my revolver in my pocket and hurried to the armory. I had planned myself, without discussing the matter with anyone, to do my duty as a professional man. I had provided


surgical dressings in considerable quantity for the wounded and had taken my revolver to use simply in case of a conflict, which every one expected. I went to the armory. Men were collecting from all parts of the city, and I walked with them to the Government building. The grounds were then fairly well filled with men bearing arms and gathering crowds of people. I remained there an hour or more.

Senator Frye. When you got there what was going on?

Mr. Day. The troops were drawn up in line in front of the door.

Senator Frye. The Provisional Government troops?

Mr. Day. The troops of the Provisional Government. The men who had been collecting at the armory and walked over. They were drawn up in line around the main entrance of the building. I remained there an hour or more and learned that the proclamation abrogating the monarchy had been read, but I did not hear it; I was not in proper position to hear it. I then walked out the side entrance, saw the troops of the Boston in the yard of Arion Hall, not drawn up at all, not with their muskets in their hands-most of them leaning up against the fence, looking on at what was going on across the way.

Senator Gray. Did the troops have their muskets stacked?

Mr. Day. That is my recollection-that they were. They had a guard pacing before the gate, but they were simply there looking out-not under arms. I walked to the steps of the opera house, a short distance away, and stood there a short time. I saw a commotion in the crowd and they all looked toward the palace. I saw the royal standard come down from the flagstaff upon the palace. I asked some one who was standing near by what it meant. They did not know; neither did I. I had with me at that time Dr. Delamater. We were together. He was under my professional care and I thought it was not best for him to be there any longer, so I took him home. I think after that I went about my professional duties.

Senator Gray. Were you there, after this first hauling down of the Hawaiian flag, when it was hauled up again?

Mr. Day. I do not remember about that; it was about that time I left the opera house and took Dr. Delamater to his home.

Senator Frye. When you were at the Government building, at the time this proclamation was read, did you remain there until the Provisional Government men took possession of the Government building, the archives, and all that-went in and took possession?

Mr. Day.Yes.

Senator Frye. Were any U. S. marines around the Government building?

Mr. Day. No.

Senator Frye. None at all there while you were there?

Mr. Day. No.

Senator Frye. None in sight of the Government building except the two sentries?

Mr. Day. They were in the grounds of the building of Arion Hall, across the street from the Government building.

Senator Frye. Inside the fence?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Frye. Not out on the street?

Mr. Day. No.

Senator Gray. What sort of fence?

Mr. Day. Picket fence.

Senator Frye. They were not out on the street?


Mr. Day. No, not at all; except the sentry, who was pacing in front of the gate.

Senator Frye. During Monday your people feared there would be riots?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Frye. Was that fear general?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Frye. In your opinion was there danger to the American people and their property at that time?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Frye. Was American property scattered all around in that section of the city?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Frye. Did you know how general the alarm was amongst the people at that time, on Monday? What were they afraid of principally?

Mr. Day. They were afraid of riots and incendiarism and conflict between the white men, who were determined to make a change, and the natives.

Senator Frye. Did you know Minister Stevens?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Frye. Well?

Mr. Day. I treated most of his family during the time he was there.

Senator Frye. Were you the physician for Chief-Justice Judd?

Mr. Day. Yes; I have treated nearly all his children and himself.

Senator Frye. Do you know whether or not there was any expectation on the part of the men who were engaged in behalf of the Provisional Government that Minister Stevens was going to have the troops help them?

Mr. Day. I had no such idea whatever. I supposed they were landed simply for the protection of American interests and under the excitement of the inevitable conflict that was coming.

Senator Frye. Did you expect the troops to take part in the conflict as between the Queen and the Provisional Government?

Mr. Day. No.

Senator Frye. Do you know what the Provisional Government expected-the leading men in the affair?

Mr. Day. I do not; I never heard that they did.

Senator Frye. Did the troops take any part?

Mr. Day. They did not.

Senator Frye. Do you know anything about what forces the Queen had on that Monday?

Mr. Day. I know that she had the Queen's guard and the police.

Senator Frye. The Queen's guard consisted of about 75 men and the police about 60?

Senator Gray. Ask Mr. Day how many they consisted of?

Senator Frye. Do you know how many they consisted of?

Mr. Day. The guard, I suppose, consisted of about 80 men, and the police? I do not remember the exact number-I suppose 65 or 75.

Senator Frye. Do you know what armed forces the Queen had on her part on Monday?

Mr. Day. I knew of none.

Senator Frye. Was there any fear on the part of the men of the Provisional Government of a conflict with the Queen's forces?

Mr. Day. They had no fear at all; they feared a conflict, but had no fear of the result.


Senator Frye. So far as you know, if the Boston had been a thousand miles at sea would there have been a different result?

Mr. Day. There would have been no difference in the result, except, probably, it would have been wrought with blood.

Senator Frye. But as to who would win they had no question?

Mr. Day. No.

Senator Frye. Was there any fear among the Provisional Government's men of the Queen's Guard?

Mr. Day. I do not understand your question.

Senator Frye. Among the white men, the Provisional Government's men, was there any fear of the valor of the Queen's Guard?

Mr. Day. They expected they would fight, but they had no fear of them.

Senator Frye. They were native Hawaiians, were they not?

Mr. Day. Native Hawaiians.

Senator Frye. Is there much fighting material among the native Hawaiians?

Mr. Day. They are not a belligerent people.

Senator Frye. Quiet, good-natured people?

Mr. Day. They are.

Senator Frye. Were you in Honolulu during the Wilcox riot of 1889?

Mr. Day. I was in the islands; I was not in Honolulu just at that time. I had gone to Mauai just at the time that occurred.

Senator Frye. Were troops landed at that time?

Mr. Day. No.

Senator Frye. What is the character of these men who are now in control of the Government?

Mr. Day. They are the best men in the community.

Senator Frye. Compare favorably with men here?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Frye. Men of education, most of them?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Frye. Were you there when the flag was hauled down?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Frye. Was there any commotion?

Mr. Day. None.

Senator Frye. In your opinion, can the Provisional Government maintain itself?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Frye. The chief followers of the Queen are whom?

Mr. Day. Hawaiians and half-whites.

Senator Frye. Natives, you mean?

Mr. Day. Natives.

Senator Frye. Half-whites?

Mr. Day. Half-whites and a large proportion of English people.

Senator Frye. What kind of men were those whom the Queen put into her cabinet-Cornwell and Colburn?

Mr. Day. They were not men who commanded the confidence of the community.

Senator Gray. That is, of what you called the best men of the community; or do you mean the whole population?

Mr. Day. I should say that they did not command the confidence of a large majority of the white community.

Senator Gray. Were you in Honolulu when Mr. Blount was there?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Gray. Did you have any communications with him?


Mr. Day. Only professionally.

Senator Gray. You did not appear before him as a witness?

Mr. Day. No.

Senator Gray. What time did you leave the islands?

Mr. Day. The 8th of August. I left Honolulu on the same steamer that Mr. and Mrs. Blount came on.

Senator Gray. Came from there here; that is, to the United States?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Frye. Have you read Mr. Blount's report?

Mr. Day. No; extracts only.

Senator Frye. So far as you know anything about the affairs of the islands during this time, did Mr. Stevens have anything to do with this revolution?

Mr. Day. No.

Senator Frye. Did you attend Mr. Stevens?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Frye. Do you remember Mr. Stevens being sick during the time of the revolution?

Mr. Day. I do not remember. I did not attend him if he was sick during that time. I attended his daughters more than I did him, although that was some little time before that.

Senator Gray. You say you went to the Hawaiian Islands in 1887?

Mr. Day. Yes; to reside.

Senator Gray. And practice your profession?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Gray. Of what state are you a citizen?

Mr. Day. Illinois.

Senator Gray. Did you become a citizen of the Hawaiian Islands?

Mr. Day. I am a voter there.

Senator Gray. Are you a citizen?

Mr. Day. I do not know just what the laws are in that respect.

Senator Gray. Did you ever become naturalized?

Mr. Day. I did not take out naturalization papers.

Senator Gray. Do you still consider yourself a citizen of the United States?

Mr. Day. I believe that is a question that has not been decided.

Senator Gray. Do you consider yourself such?

Mr. Day. I call myself an American.

Senator Frye. You did not forswear your allegiance to the United States?

Mr. Day. I did not forswear my allegiance to the United States, but I did sign the constitution which requires a voter to support the constitution.

Senator Gray. Did you attend this meeting on Monday?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Gray. Were you a supporter of that meeting?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Gray. Were you there when the troops landed?

Mr. Day. I was in Honolulu.

Senator Gray. I mean in town.

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Gray. Did you see the troops?

Mr. Day. I saw them in the evening.

Senator Gray. You did not see them march up from the landing?

Mr. Day. No.

Senator Gray. You were not present at the landing?


Mr. Day. No; in driving about in the evening on my professional rounds I saw them.

Senator Gray. You spoke of being informed—notice was passed around on Monday evening that there was to be a movement to establish a provisional government. Did you get that notice?

Mr. Day. I got a statement.

Senator Gray. On information?

Mr. Day. Information; yes, sir. It should hardly be dignified as an official notice.

Senator Gray. Who informed you?

Mr. Day. Mr. George Smith.

Senator Gray. The person at whose office the meetings were held?

Mr. Day. No; he is a wholesale druggist there.

Senator Gray. Not the Mr. Smith who is a member of the Provisional Government?

Mr. Day. No.

Senator Gray. Was Mr. George Smith a supporter of the movement?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Gray. Is he an American?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Gray. How many Americans were on the committee of safety?

Mr. Day. I do not know; I will have to look over the list to tell you that.

Senator Gray. Henry A. Cooper?

Mr. Day. Do you mean by Americans the same as myself, born in the United States and living there under the laws and having sworn to support the Hawaiian constitution and abide by their laws?

Senator Gray. You may call it an American living there and in business there.

Mr. Day. I do not know how our statutes are; whether we are Americans.

Senator Gray. The same as yourself.

Mr. Day. Yes; Henry A. Cooper is an American, the same as I am.

Senator Gray. F. W. McChesney?

Mr. Day. American.

Senator Gray. W. C. Wilder?

Mr. Day. American.

Senator Gray. C. Bolte?

Mr. Day. German.

Senator Gray. Andrew Brown?

Mr. Day. Scotchman.

Senator Gray. William O. Smith?

Mr. Day. Hawaiian.

Senator Gray. Henry Waterhouse?

Mr. Day. English.

Senator Gray. Theodore F. Lansing?

Mr. Day. American.

Senator Gray. Edward Shur?

Mr. Day. German.

Senator Gray. L. A. Thurston?

Mr. Day. Hawaiian.

Senator Gray. That is, he was born there?

Mr. Day. A Hawaiian of American parentage.

Senator Gray. John Emmeluth?

Mr. Day. I think he is a German.

Senator Gray. W.R. Castle?


Mr. Day. An Hawaiian.

Senator Gray. J. A. McCandless?

Mr. Day. An American.

Senator Gray. Were they all voters, the same as you?

Mr. Day. Yes; many of them are old residents of the country.

Senator Frye. Is there anything that occurs to you that you would like to state in connection with this matter? If there is anything that you know about the revolution that occurred about that time, and it is legitimate, you may state it.

Mr. Day. I would like to state my opinion, if you will allow me, about the landing of the American troops—my individual opinion.

Senator Frye. Yes.

Mr. Day. It seemed to me as though it was the duty of the American minister, under the conditions, to land the troops for the protection of American property.

Senator Gray. And life?

Mr. Day. And the lives of women and children that might be sacrificed, perhaps. I think that duty devolved not only upon him, but upon all ministers there, to land troops for the protection of the citizens and their lives; but the Boston was the only ship in the waters at the time. The same thing has been done, during the last crisis by the British and Japanese, by landing troops from their ships.

Senator Frye. What do you call the last crisis?

Mr. Day. During the time when there was, apparently, danger of conflict between the Provisional Government and the royalists at an attempted restoration of the Queen.

Senator Gray. While you were there?

Mr. Day. No.

Senator Frye. That has been since the Provisional Government was established?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Gray. After you left the islands?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Gray. That is hearsay.

Senator Frye. Did most of the valuable property in Honolulu belong to men of American birth?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Gray. Do you know Mr. Thurston?

Mr. Day. Yes.

Senator Gray. Have you seen him since you have been here?

Mr. Day. I saw him for a few minutes last evening.

Senator Frye. When did you arrive, yesterday?

Mr. Day. Last evening.

Senator Frye. Did you call on Mr. Thurston or did he call on you?

Mr. Day. I called on him.

Senator Frye. Was Dr. Delamater with you last evening when you called?

Mr. Day. Yes; Mr. Irwin, Dr. Delamater, and I called on Mr. Thurston. Mr. Thurston is an old patient of mine.


Senator Frye. Are you a chaplain in the Navy?

Mr. Hoes. Yes.

Senator Frye. Have you ever been in Honolulu?

Mr. Hoes. I have.


Senator Frye. When and how long were you there?

Mr. Hoes. I reached Honolulu on the U. S. S. Pensacola September 25, 1891, and remained there until March 9, 1893.

The Chairman. Who was your captain?

Mr. Hoes. The commanding officer of the Pensacola was Capt. Albert Kautz, U. S. Navy.

Senator Frye. What were you doing there during that time?

Mr. Hoes. I went there as chaplain of the Pensacola, and, having considerable leisure, apart from my professional duties, I commenced a study of the history of the country, pursuing it as carefully and critically as the books and pamphlets at my command would permit.

The Chairman. Do you mean to say that you stayed ashore from 1891 to 1893?

Mr. Hoes. No; I will explain that. I was officially attached to the Pensacola while she remained in Hawaiian waters, and performed my duties accordingly; but, having considerable leisure at my disposal, as already said, I engaged in historical studies, and was instrumental, with Prof. Alexander, J. S. Emerson, and others, in organizing the Hawaiian Historical Society, and was officially connected with that organization until I left Honolulu. The Queen, subsequently hearing that I was so deeply interested in historical research, applied to Secretary Blaine, through Minister Stevens, for permission for me to remain in Honolulu after the Pensacola left, to prepare a bibliography of Hawaii, and also to examine and arrange the early archives of the Government, which were in a state of disgraceful confusion. I was subsequently detached and remained in Honolulu until the time stated.

The Chairman. If the Queen made that application of her own motion she could not have been a very ignorant woman?

Mr. Hoes. No one ever claimed that respecting the Queen. As a matter of fact, however, the Queen took this action upon the advice of Prof. Alexander, the recognized historian of the country, and of others who were interested in the history of Hawaii and the preservation of its early archives.

Senator Frye. Did you keep a scrapbook?

Mr. Hoes. I kept a scrapbook of the first days of the revolution. It was made up of all the cuttings relating in any way to the revolution, taken from the Advertiser, a supporter of the Provisional Government, and the Bulletin and Holomua, both of which then and subsequently advocated the cause of the Queen.

Senator Frye. In that scrap book does there appear the recognitions of the Provisional Government by the various governments represented in Honolulu?

Mr. Hoes. Yes.

Senator Frye. The letters of recognition sent by the various Governments represented in the Hawaiian Islands do not appear of record here, and I think they ought to come in. They are as follows:

Consulate of Chile,
Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, January 18, 1893.
Gentlemen: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of yesterday's date, together with a copy of the proclamation issued yesterday, whereby I am informed, for reasons set forth, the Hawaiian monarchy has been abrogated and a provisional government established, the same being now in possession of Government departmental buildings, the archives, and the treasury, and whereby you request me to recognize the said Provisional Government

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