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Reports of Committee on Foreign Relations 1789-1901 Volume 6 pp1154-1155 300dpi scan (VERY LARGE!)

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Mr. Ludlow. Straight across is from 10 to 15 miles.

Senator Sherman. Your idea is that in case of war our forces could be thrown on the island, and they could practically occupy that island without regard to the Navy?

Mr. Ludlow. They have some ships there, and also naturally they would make the best fight they could. But they realize the fact that war without us would involve all they have to the north of us.

Senator Sherman. Still, there is no other preparation for defense, for any other fort on the island except that?

Mr. Ludlow. I never heard of any and do not believe there is.

Senator Sherman. Is there any difficulty in landing on the inside?

Mr. Ludlow. On the inside; no. There are abundant harbors on the West Pacific coast-some very fine harbors in there that have never been surveyed.

The Chairman. Have you mentioned the depot of supplies at Coquimbo?

Mr. Ludlow. Yes; that is in Peru. That is the southern part of their squadron. They have a store ship there, and a direct line of steamers clear up to Callao.

The Chairman. Is it Coquimbo or the Esquimalt?

Mr. Ludlow. Esquimalt is fortified somewhat.

The Chairman. Land fortifications?

Mr. Ludlow. There are some land fortifications there, but not of very great importance. They have a dry dock and can do repairs there.

The Chairman. They have not built ships there yet?

Mr. Ludlow. Oh, no.

The Chairman. They have their coal supplies back on the island?

Mr. Ludlow. Their coal mines are the Nanaimo, which are on the east side of the island of Vancouver, about 60 or 70 miles north of Victoria; and, at Departure Bay, the Wellington mines; 50 miles north is the Comax mine. There is the greatest abundance of coal to the north end of the island; it is only a question of opening it up.

Senator Sherman. Does that coal go to San Francisco?

Mr. Ludlow. Yes. So far as I know, it is the only bituminous coal found on the west coast. The coal is of very excellent quality.

Senator Dolph. Are you acquainted with the coal industry in the State of Washington?

Mr. Ludlow. It is this way. For three years I was the lighthouse inspector at San Francisco, and in that position I had to buy a great deal of coal, and I tried all the coal from all the mines that I could find in the market in San Francisco.

Senator Dolph. How long ago was that?

Mr. Ludlow. That was in 1887, 1888, 1889, and 1890.

Senator Dolph. Are you familiar with the product from the Green River country, the mines opened by the Central and Southern Pacific?

Mr. Ludlow. In Wyoming?

Senator Dolph. No; in Washington.

Mr. Ludlow. The Green River in Washington? No; I have not seen those; I did not know there was any on the market.

Senator Dolph. Do you know the quality of the coal used by the Central and Southern Pacific from mines in Washington east of Tacoma and up in the Cascade Mountains?

Mr. Ludlow. I have not seen them. They get their coal from Coma Vein, Vancouvers Island. They own 30 per cent in those mines, and Dunsmores own 70.

Adjourned to meet on notice.


Washington, D. C, Thursday, February 8,1894.=

The subcommittee met pursuant to notice.

Present: The chairman (Senator Morgan) and Senators Gray and Frye. Absent: Senators Butler and Sherman.


Senator Gray. You have already been sworn?

Mr. Ludlow. Yes.

Senator Gray. And you stated in your examination the other day that you went to the Sandwich Islands, in command of the Mohican, with Admiral Skerrett; that you arrived there on the 10th of February, and were there until when?

Mr. Ludlow. The 1st of May.

Senator Gray. You have already said that you were ashore nearly every day; that as Admiral Skerrett's chief of staff it was your duty to make a great many social and official calls; that you came in contact with the people of those islands, and that you were an interested observer of the condition of things obtaining there. That is so, is it not?

Mr. Ludlow. Yes.

Senator Gray. Did you, with reference to the revolution of January 17, 1893, form any opinion from these sources of observation and information as to whether or not that revolution would have been accomplished when it was accomplished and as it was accomplished if it had not been for the presence on shore of the United States troops??

Senator Frye. Do you consider that a legitimate question?

Senator Gray. I do.

The Chairman. I expect Mr. Ludlow had better answer that question.

Mr. Ludlow. I would like to call attention to a fact in the question.

The Chairman. State your opinion about it.

Mr. Ludlow. The troops were not on shore at the commencement of the revolution; that is, something had been done in the way of the revolution before the men got ashore.

The Chairman. You do not know that of your own knowledge?

Mr. Ludlow. No. The tenor of the Senator's question is what I heard and what I learned and saw.

The Chairman. I do not understand that you are asked for all you heard and learned; but the question is based upon a hypothesis.

Senator Gray. There is no hypothesis about the fact that the revolution, so-called, occurred on the 17th of January, and, when Capt. Ludlow arrived there, it was still a matter of exceeding and absorbing interest and a topic of conversation among those people. The captain was ashore and met all classes of people. I now ask him whether he formed any idea as to whether that revolution would have occurred as it did but for the presence of those United States troops?

The Chairman. State whether you think it would have occurred or not, and then you may give your sources of information.

Senator Gray. State categorically one way or the other.

The Chairman. It is a matter of opinion. You are asked to state whether you formed an opinion. Did you form an opinion about it?

Mr. Ludlow. Yes.

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