410-411

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Reports of Committee on Foreign Relations 1789-1901 Volume 6 pp410-411 300dpi scan (VERY LARGE!)

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-p410-
Page.
Individual characteristics of islands:
Oahu
419
Coast
419
Interior
419
Cities, towns, and ports, Honolulu
420-423
Other than Honolulu
423,424
Hawaii
424
Coast
424
Interior
425
Cities, towns, and ports
426,427
Maui
428
Coast
428
Interior
429
Cities, towns, and ports
429,430
Kauai
431
Coast
431
Interior
431
Cities, towns, and ports
432,433
Molokai
433
Coast
433
Interior
433
Cities, towns, and ports
434
Lanai
434
Niihau
434
Cities, towns, and ports
434,435
Kahulaui
435
Kaula
435
Lenua
435
Molokini
436
Communications 436
Railroads
436
Roads
437
Telegraphs, telephones
437
Inter-island steamers and vessels
437
Leprosy 437-440

Report on the Hawaiian Islands.

The Hawaiian Islands lie between parallels 18° 50' and 23° 5' north latitude, and between meridians 154° 40' and 101° 50' west from Greenwich. A line drawn through the axis of the group would approximate roughly the segment of a circle convex towards the northeast; the chord connecting the most widely separated points would have a length of about 400 statute miles.

Honolulu, the capital and chief city, lies 2,080 miles from San Francisco; approximately 3,800 miles from Auckland; 4,500 miles from Sydney; and 4,800 miles from Hongkong.

Mean time Honolulu noon is equivalent to 10h. 31m. 26s. Greenwich mean time.

COMMUNICATIONS WITH THE UNITED STATES.

San Francisco to Honolulu.—The Australia of the Oceanic Steamship Company and the Zealandia (W. J. Irwin) leave San Francisco and return every other Tuesday.

The Oceanic Steamship Company's steamers Alameda, Mariposa; and the Union Steamship Company's steamer Monowai, leave San Francisco for New Zealand via Honolulu once a month.

Time.-San Francisco to Honolulu, seven days.

Sailing vessels, with good passenger accommodations, run regularly from San Francisco to Honolulu.

-p411-

Sailing time.-San Francisco to Honolulu, ten to eighteen days.

Pacific mail steamers, San Francisco to China and Japan, stop at Honolulu every other trip.

"A new company sends its first steamer this month (February, 1893), from Tacoma and Seattle to Honolulu. Steamers of the Occidental and Oriental line to China and Japan [N. Y. Tribune, February 16] are due to stop at Honolulu."

Steamers of the Oceanic and Pacific Mail companies are under the United States flag.

POSITION, AREAS, AND GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES.

The strategic value of the islands and their geographical position are indicated on the accompanying chart (A). In general the islands are mountainous, covered with verdure, and in parts, especially of Hawaii, possessing very considerable areas of forest, whose vegetation is that of the tropics.

The Hawaiian group is composed of eight inhabited, and of four uninhabited islands. [Chart B.] The names and dimensions of the inhabited islands are:

Name. Length. Breadth. Area.
Miles. Miles. Square miles.
Hawaii 90 74 3,950
Oahu 46 25 530
Maui 48 30 620
Kauai 25 22 500
Molokai 40 7 190
Lanai 17 9 100
Niihau 20 7 90
Kahulaui 11 8 60


The first five of these islands contain the bulk of the population as well as the chief industries.

Three of the four uninhabited islands of the group are Kaula, Lenua, and Molokini.

The total area of the inhabited islands is about 6,040 square miles.

"All of these islands are volcanic. No other rocks than volcanic are found upon any of them, excepting a few remnants of raised sea beaches composed of consolidated coral sands. All the larger ones are very mountainous.

"The culminating points of the island Hawaii are Mauna Kea, 13,900 feet, and Mauna Loa, 13,700 feet," the highest points of the group.

"In general the island group consists of the summits of a gigantic submarine mountain chain, projecting its loftier peaks and domes above the water."*

On the island of Hawaii the volcanic forces are still in operation; on the other islands they are extinct.

None of the mountains are of sufficient height to reach the line of eternal snow.


*See Hawaiian volcanoes, Capt. C. E. Dutton, U.S.A. Capt. (now Major) Dutton adds: "Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea, referred to their true bases at the bottom of the Pacific, are therefore mountains not far from 30,000 feet in height." Maj Dutton is frequently quoted in the following paragraphs relating to the physical characteristics of the islands.


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