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than any other in the world. The yield will average about 5,000 pounds of sugar to the acre, and choice fields sometimes yield twice that amount. Large amounts of American capital have heen invested in the plantations and in the accessory commerce."
Large flocks of sheep and herds of cattle are found. These animals are raised chiefly for their wool and hides. On the island of Lanai great flocks of sheep pasture, while in Hawaii considerable numbers of wild cattle are still found in the mountains;* wild goats and wild hogs also exist in great numbers, and it is said that wild horses and asses are also found.
- 1 DISEASES (OTHER THAN LEPROSY).
- 2 MANNER OF LIFE, CLOTHING.
- 3 INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EIGHT INHABITED ISLANDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP.
- 3.1 Island of Oahu (Map C).
- 3.2 Island of Hawaii. (Map D.)
- 3.3 Island of Maui (Map E.)
- 3.4 Island of Kauai. (Map E).
- 3.5 Island of Molokai. (Chart B.)
- 3.6 Island of Lanai, or Ranai. (Chart B.)
- 3.7 Island of Niihau. (Chart B.)
- 3.8 Island of Kahulaui. (Chart B.)
- 3.9 Island of Kaula. (Chart B.)
- 3.10 Island of Lenua. (Chart B.)
- 3.11 Island of Molokini. (Chart B.)
- 4 Communications of the Hawaiian Islands.
- 5 LEPROSY.
DISEASES (OTHER THAN LEPROSY).
It is asserted that diseases, other than leprosy, are not as troublesome as in most places considered healthful. Malarial fevers are thought to be infrequent, nevertheless in the monthly table (March, 1891) the greatest number of deaths for the year, 89, is recorded as due to "fever."
Consumption (probably imported cases) comes next with 74; "old age" next with 59. Amongst the other more important causes of death are diarrhea, 29; dysentery, 15. From diseases of the liver but 2 died, while 25 died of disease of the heart.
From this it would seem that the diseases common to the tropics—fever and stomach troubles—are to be guarded against. Rheumatism is prevalent in many of the damper localities; smallpox occasionally appears; and measels has on one or two occasions carried off many of the natives, owing to their manner of life, but this disease is now easily controlled when it makes its appearance. Lung and chest troubles are almost unknown to natives of the islands. In fact, the Hawaiian Islands are regions of unusual healthfulness.
The general health of the natives is steadily improving; leprosy, now largely under medical control, is gradually being stamped out, (See Leprosy.)
MANNER OF LIFE, CLOTHING.
The whites live, of course, much as they live at home, and usually in well-constructed houses of European style. The natives live as a rule in grass huts, upon native food, largely taro and fruit, and wear clothing of light cotton stuff, a straw hat, but shoes rarely.
Woolens are not in general use, but very light flannels are recommended for strangers at all seasons.
At night blankets are rarely needed, but a light blanket is often comfortable. Houses have no fireplaces.
For troops clothing for all seasons should be light flannel drawers and shirts, wide straw hats or helmets, and the light quality of outer garments issued to troops on the southern stations.
Ample tentage should be provided for use in localities where heavy and sudden rainfalls are frequent, and light blankets should be carried.
The ration should be suited to the requirements of a warm climate.
*Descended from the animals introduced by Vancouver in 1792.
INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EIGHT INHABITED ISLANDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP.
Island of Oahu (Map C).
This island has the form of an irregular quadrangle; it lies 23 miles northwest of the nearest island of the group, Molokai. Length about 46, breadth about 25 miles.
Oahu, though not the largest, is the most important of the Hawaiian group, as it contains Honolulu, the capital, chief seaport, and principal city.
Coast.—The greater part of the island is surrounded by a coral reef often half a mile wide.
The windward side of the island presents a gigantic cliff hardly accessible, except at one point reached by a road cut with great labor from the mountain side; but the leeward side descends from the mountain to the sea in very moderate slopes deeply cut by ravines.
The northeastern coast of the island is generally a rugged plateau descending by gentle slopes to the water. When viewed from the ocean, this coast appears to be formed of detached hills rising steeply and covered with woods. The intervening valleys are fertile and well cultivated. From the southeast extremity of the island, called Makapuu Point, to the Mokapu Peninsula, the coast is often marked by scattered islets and rocks; and beyond, the peninsula is indented by a considerable bay extending to Kaoio Point, thence to Kahuku, the northern point of Oahu. Along this part of the coast is a narrow strip of land, varying from a half to 2 miles in breadth, only a few feet above the level of the sea. It is very fertile, and has a gradual ascent to the foot of the mountains.
From Kahuku to the village of Waimea lies a level plain from 2 to 6 miles wide, and but slightly above the level of the sea. It is a good pasture, and at many of its frequent holes and crevices may be seen streams of clear and cool fresh water making their subterranean way from the mountains to the outlets in the sea below low-water mark.
The southwest side of the island is composed chiefly of craggy mountains, some descending abruptly to the sea, others terminating a small distance from it; thence a low border of land extends to a shore formed by sandy beaches, bounded by rocks on which the surf beats heavily.
The southwest extremity is Laeloa, or Barber Point; thence the shore continues low, flat, and covered with bushes to the entrance of Pearl River, about 12 miles from Honolulu.
Some of the land in this vicinity is of extreme fertility.
Interior. —Two parallel ranges of hills traverse Oahu from southeast to northwest, separated by a low plain. The highest point is Kauia, 4,000 feet, in the west range. The east range is much longer than the other, and its ridge is very broken; lateral spurs extend from many ravines on the land side, but for 30 miles on the other side the range presents to the sea a nearly vertical wall without a break. There are few craters in the loftier heights; volcanic activity seems to have ceased; but several groups of small cones with craters, some of lava, some of tufa, exist. Valleys are numerous, with lateral ravines, in which water courses and cascades are found.
A chain of mountains rises near the center of the east part of the island to 3,175 feet, and descends near the middle into the Ewa Plain, which divides this range from the distant and elevated mountains that
rise in a line parallel with the southwest shore. The Ewa Divide lies 5 miles west of Honolulu. This Ewa Plain is nearly 20 miles in length from Pearl River to Waialua, and in some parts is 9 or 10 miles across; its soil is fertile, and watered by a number of rivulets running along deep water courses emptying into the sea.
Plain of Honolulu.—This plain is some 10 miles in length, and in some parts 2 miles in width from the sea to the foot of the mountains.
The whole plain is covered with rich, alluvial soils, in places 2 or 3 feet deep. Under this lie volcanic ashes and cinders 14 to 16 feet deep, resting on a stratum of solid nonvolcanic rock, a kind of sediment deposited by the sea, in which branches of white coral, bones of fish and animals, and several varieties of marine shells have been found. A number of wells have been dug to a depth of 12 to 13 feet in the substratum of rock, always reaching good clear water, which, though free from salt or brackish taste, rises and falls with the tide.
Inland from Waikiki, near Honolulu, and reached by the Punahou road, lies the Manoa Valley, whose upper portion divides into numerous canyons.
There is a broad valley called Nuuanu, bounded by a mountain wall 20 miles in length, which rises from the green, rolling plain below.
Less than 5 miles from Honolulu, in a westerly direction, lies the valley of Moaualua. Here are line rice fields, cocoanut groves, and fish ponds.
In the district of Waianae the bases of the mountain lie farther from the sea and a narrow valley, presenting a fertile and cultivated aspect, seems to wind for some distance through hills.
In the Waialua bay district the soil is sandy and poor, but a short distance inshore an agreeable change takes place.
CITIES, TOWNS, AND PORTS, OAHU.
Honolulu is the capital and principal port of the Hawaiian Islands, and is situated on the south side of Oahu, on a narrow plain at the foot of the eastern range of mountains.
The aspect of the country around Honolulu, as seen from the roads, is barren; and the plain on which the town stands is destitute of verdure. This plain extends east and west from the town, while behind it the laud rises gradually towards the Nuuanu Valley. Several crater-shaped hills are in sight, one of which, named Punch Bowl Hill, 498 feet high, lies close to the northeast side of the town.
The central part of Honolulu consists of regularly laid out streets, on either side of which stand houses and warehouses of European style, frequently placed within spacious, inclosed gardens. The outer portions of the town are chieliy composed of grass huts inhabited by natives. Honolulu would, probably, burn easily to the ground.
Amongst the principal buildings are the spacious Government houses, in which all the public offices are inclosed, the King's palace, a fort, two hospitals, several churches and chapels belonging to the different religious denominations, custom house, sailors' home, and several schools.
Hospitals.—There is a quarantine hospital on the west side of the harbor, and a good general hospital to which sailors and others are admitted at $1.25 per diem.
Shops.—There are foundries, workshops, and shipyards, where considerable repairs can be effected.
Patent slip.— A patent slip has been constructed by the Government on the east side of the harbor opposite the outer light house. This slip can take a vessel of 1,700 tons.
The harbor is formed by an opening in the coral reef, about 150 yards wide at the entrance and 300 yards wide off the town, and rather more than a mile in length. Though small it is capable of accommodating a good number of vessels. Depth on bar is 30 feet.
Wharves.—The railway crosses the flats on the north side of the harbor and terminates at two wharves, with 19 feet of water alongside each of them. The west wharf is used by ships.
There is in the harbor altogether 1,900 feet of wharf frontage, with a depth of 211/2 feet, and 700 feet with depths of from 17 to 19 feet, and about 1,200 feet with less depth.
Tides.—The tidal streams are regular, running six hours each way. The flood is to the westward. Springs rise from 21/2 to 3 feet.
Supplies.—Supplies of all kinds are plentiful. Beef, mutton, fowls, eggs, vegetables, and fruit can be obtained at moderate prices.
Water can be procured from the shore in a tank. It is good, but very expensive, even in the inner anchorage being $2.50 a ton. This for ships.
Implements and building materials (with the exception of timber, which is good and moderate in price) are excessively costly in Honolulu. The demand for and sale of articles required for the equipment of ships have greatly diminished.
Probably material for repair of arms, equipments, and munitions of troops could be obtained with difficulty, or not at all.
Water and lighting.—Honolulu has an abundant supply of excellent water—pure, free from limestone or alkali, soft, and adapted to all the uses of the city. It is brought from reservoirs at the upper end of the lovely Nuuanu Valley, and conveyed by pipes through the business and principal residence districts. The city is lighted by electricity, the power for the generation of which is derived from the reservoirs referred to. Both the water and lighting systems are controlled by the Government.
Coal.—Welsh or Australian coal of good quality can be obtained from European firms. About 15,000 tons is the quantity generally kept in stock.
Climate.—The climate of Honolulu is generally very pleasant and healthful, especially when the northeast trade wind prevails. The southerly and southwesterly winds are called by the natives the "sick winds," because they are followed by small ailments, gastric maladies, and intermittent fevers, as is the case with the sirocco in Europe.
The following table* gives meteorological observations taken at Honolulu, 1876:
|Months||Mean thermometer.||Rain days.||Prevailing winds.|
|January||78||70||16||NE., force 8 maximum.|
|February||78||69||10||NE., force 3, average.|
|March||75||72||15||S., force 3, calm at night.|
|April||77||71||15||NE., force 4, light at night.|
|May||79||72||11||NE., force 4.|
|June||80||73||5||NE., force 3.|
|July||80||75||13||NE., calm at night.|
|September||81||75||5||NE., 21 days; SE., 9 days.|
* Pacific islands. Sailing directions. Admiralty.
The barometer generally falls below 30 during southerly winds.
Population.—Honolulu has a population of 23,000 or 24,000, of various nationalities, consisting principally of whites, natives, Chinese, and Portuguese. Of these the whites are the controlling element in commercial, manufacturing, and general affairs, though there are several business houses in the hands of the Chinese. The Portuguese are chiefly engaged in manual labor.
The most intelligent class of Hawaiians are employed in government or commercial positions; of the lower classes of the natives some are laborers; others exist by fishing, farming, and various occupations.
Of the whites, Americans or those of American descent largely predominate in numbers and influence, though those of German and British extraction are very prominent.
Horses, carriages, etc.—Hacks are very common in Honolulu. They are stationed at the corners of all the main thoroughfares, and the fare to any part of the city is 25 cents. The horses in use are said to be superior to those of many large cities. There are four livery stables, well equipped with saddle and carriage animals.
Hotels.—The Royal Hawaiian has accommodations for 150 guests, electric lights, electric bells, water from artesian wells; Eagle hotel; Arlington; Waikiki Villa, at Waikiki, 3 miles from Honolulu, connected by tram cars from Honolulu.
Tram cars.—About 12 or 14 miles of tram-car lines exist. These cars are drawn by mules or horses. The cars are of American make.
Telephones.—There is said to be an excellent system of telephonic communication; two companies; rates low; 1,300 telephones in use.
Public buildings.—Iolani Palace, in King street, said to have cost $500,000.
Aliiolani hall, the main Government building, in which the Legislature meets.
The Queen's hospital, intended for the relief of afflicted Hawaiians of both sexes, gratis.
The opera house, seating capacity 1,000.
The Lunalilo home, a home for aged Hawaiians.
The insane asylum, from 50 to 75 inmates.
The Oahu jail. Prisoners are required to do road work and other labor in and around Honolulu.
The fish market.
The Royal Mausoleum.
Honolulu Free Library, contains 10,000 volumes, on general subjects.
Young Men's Christian Association building.
Post office building.
Police station house for the reception of petty offenders.
Current publications.—Pacific Commercial Advertiser, frequency of publication unknown.
The Hawaiian Gazette, a weekly publication.
The Kuokoa, a weekly publication.
The Bulletin, an evening daily.
Ka Leo, native, daily and weekly.
Holomua, native, weekly.
Elele, native, weekly.
Monthly publications.—The Friend, The Anglican Churchman, The Planter's Monthly, The Paradise of the Pacific.
A Tourist's Guide is issued annually.
The Hawaiian Annual
The Hawaiian Gazette Publishing Company possesses a very complete printing establishment.
Manufacturing.—Honolulu Iron Works, incorporated 1877. Number of hands employed, usually about 200. This institution is said to be equipped with excellent appliances in all its departments.
Honolulu Steam Rice Mills—Large quantities of rice milled for home and foreign use.
Hawaiian Carriage Manufacturing Company.—Manufacture to order and attend to all kinds of repairing; deal in and keep on hand wagon makers' supplies.
Hopper's Planing Mill and Iron Works.—Extensive plant, said to execute all kinds of work in wood and iron.
Enterprise Planing Mill.—Sash, doors, etc
Lucas Bros.—Sash, doors, etc.
Hawaiian Gazette.—Bookbinding, etc.
Press Publishing Company.—Well equipped printing house.
Tahiti Lemonade Works.—For manufacture of all kinds of aerated waters.
Another establishment of the same kind.
The usual number of blacksmith and wagon shops, cooperages, etc.
Banking houses.—Bishop & Co.; Claus Spreckles & Co., whose California correspondent is the Anglo-California bank.
The mercantile houses are numerous.
CITIES OF OAHU (OTHER THAN HONOLULU).
Kanehoe, in the Kulau district, the principal place on its side of the island, situated near Waialai harbor, just beneath the Pali, back of Honolulu. No details of settlement. The climate here is cooler by a few degrees than on the leeward side, and frequent showers keep up the verdure.
Waialua, a large village, lies at the northern end of the plain which separates the two ranges of mountains. No details.
Waianae, nearly in the middle of the southwest coast of the island, a village lying at the base of the mountains in a narrow valley, fertile and cultivated. The shore here forms a small sandy bay, and on the southern side, between two high rocky precipices, in a grove of cocoanut trees, stands the village.
Pearl City, situated on the south side of the island, is a large, irregularly-shaped lagoon or inlet, greatly cut up by projecting points and islands. This is Puuloa River and Pearl Lochs, where the United States Government has acquired certain rights.* On the west side of the channel lies Puuloa village, in the neighborhood of which are large salt works. Along the inshore side of the Pearl Lochs is a strip of very fertile land of variable breadth, part of which is under cultivation; behind the land rises gradually to the Ewa plain. Pearl City is said to be one of the pleasantest spots on the island, made accessible by the building of the Oahu Railroad. It is situated
*In 1887 a treaty between Hawaii and the United States was made which agreed that, on condition of the remission of duties on certain articles of Hawaiian produce, the United States was ceded the exclusive right to establish and fortify a naval station in the Hawaiian Islands. Pearl Harbor was designated as the station.
In 1889 an enlargement of the treaty provisions, so as to confer special advantages upon both parties, was proposed by the United States. It was suggested that the cession of a naval station be perpetual as well as exclusive. Another provision was proposed, viz, to allow the United States to land troops in Hawaii whenever necessary to preserve order. These provisions have not so far been taken advantage of by the United States.
in the midst of a highly productive and fertile district, 12 miles distant from Honolulu, and is now a beautiful town, with an abundant supply of pure artesian water, with wide streets, a substantial station, and several modern residences already built, and with improvements going on as rapidly as a large force of workmen can push them to completion.
The Oahu Land and Railroad Company founded the town.
Water supply.—Pearl City is said to have facilities for supplying 10,000 inhabitants. There is now an artesian well which flows to a height of 28 feet, and has a capacity, when pumped, of 2,000,000 gallons per day. The water from this well will be pumped into a reservoir 100 feet high, and be used to supply the peninsula.
There is another reservoir on the more elevated ground, 200 feet above sea level, with a capacity of 1,500,000 gallons, which can be increased to 16,000,000 as soon as necessary. This is supplied from mountain streams.
Pearl City consists of 2,200 acres of land, which was owned in fee simple by the Oahu Railroad and Land Company, 18,000 acres adjoining which is held by the same company under a fifty-year lease, and is being sublet for fruit-growing purposes. Three companies have recently been incorporated, two of them with a capital of $30,000 each, and have rented a choice portion of this land, which will be planted principally in bananas and pineapples.
The 2,200 acres which the town proper comprises, includes the whole of the peninsula extending into the harbor, and the lots on the mainland, the latter of which are on a gradual slope of land inclining toward the mountains.
The site of Pearl City has long been a favorite spot where boating, bathing, and fishing can be enjoyed under the most favorable circumstances. A good breeze is always blowing from the ocean. The temperature of the water is perfect for bathing all the year round.*
Diamond Hill—About 31/2 miles southeast of Honolulu; a signal station for incoming vessels.
Waikiki.—A village lying about 1 mile northwest of Diamond Hill. There is no anchorage in front of it.
Island of Hawaii. (Map D.)
In shape the island of Hawaii is a wide triangle, sides 85, 75, and 65 geographical miles. Almost the whole surface is a gentle slope from one of the four volcanic mountains: Mauna Kea, on north, 13,805 feet, the highest peak in the Pacific Ocean; Mauna Loa, on south, 13,600 feet; Mauna Hualalai, on west, 8,275 feet; and Mauna Kohala, on northwest, 5,505 feet. The slopes on the west are so gentle that the base of terminal cones may be reached on horseback. In the Mahukona district the face of the country is regular, ascending gradually from coast to summit of highland.
The plain lying between the mountains of Hawaii is many square miles in extent.
Coast.—The south point of the island of Hawaii, called Ka Lae, is very low, rising with a gentle slope to the hills behind. The southern side of the island is much drier and the country more open and free from forest than on the north, where, indeed, the forests are very dense.
From the south to Kumukahi, the east point of Hawaii, there are no bays or good anchorages.† The coast is exposed to wind and swell.
*Pacific Coast Commercial Record. †Except the small bay at Kaalualu
From the east point almost to Hilo Bay the coast is precipitous, and against it the sea continually beats with violence; thence for thirty miles the shore is remarkable for the number of streams (85), running at the bottom of ravines, 1,800 to 2,000 feet deep, which furrow the side of Mauna Kea and render travel along its coast very laborious. Ridges between the ravines, terminating at the sea in precipices from 100 to 500 feet high, oblige the road to run inland. The northeastern ooast is very generally steep and rocky, though here and there are small bays or breaks in the cliffs where the natives are able to land their canoes.
Upolu Point is the northern extremity of the island. Behind it lies an extensive plain in good state of cultivation, rising gradually to the foot of the mountains.
From the north point of the island the west coast is at first barren, owing to want of rain; the face of the country is regular, ascending gradually from the coast to the summit of highland in the interior. From Kawaihe Bay to the village of Kailua there is no anchorage or shelter.
Kealakekua Bay, where stands the monument to Capt. Cook, R.N., is the best anchorage of the south coast; but south of it lies a rugged lava-covered shore, where large masses of rock, miles in extent, often form perpendicular cliffs against which the sea beats with fury.
This formation extends half a mile into the interior, and as the distance from the sea increases the soil becomes richer and more productive. The face of the country within this rocky barrier is rough and covered with blocks of lava more or less decomposed, but at a distance of 2 miles from the coast begins to be well covered with woods of various kinds, which are rendered almost impassable by an undergrowth of vines and ferns.
The interior of the island of Hawaii is a strange blending of fertility and desolation. In the valleys are often found regions of extraordinary richness, that are reached only by crossing arid districts strewn with rocks and bowlders, or overlaid by recent streams of lava still uncovered by soil.
Barren wastes are succeeded by vegetation so dense as to be almost impenetrable, or by pleasant grass lands lying near forests of the peculiar koa tree, which is characteristic of this island. The trees in the koa forests frequently grow close together from a soil carpeted with long rich grass; they are large in size, of hard, dark wood, and were formerly greatly used to make the canoes of the islanders.
The density of the forests is proportional to the amount of rainfall, which, upon the windward side of Hawaii, is phenomenally great.*
On Hawaii is found a peculiar grass, said to have been brought to the island by accident. In its green state it is hardly fit for pasture. Cattle and horses eat it, but it apparently affords very little nourishment, though more when cured. So dense and high is this grass that it is difficult to ride through it. Another, and perhaps the best variety of grass, comes from Mexico; it is called, locally, maniania grass, and wherever it grows forms the richest and most velvety sward imaginable. It is highly nutritious and animals are very fond of it.
Such being the character of the interior of the island, roads are in general bad, and communication difficult.
*Maj. Dutton says that this may attain to more than 300 inches annually in the interior of Hawaii; 240 inches have been measured at Hilo.
CITIES, TOWNS, AND PORTS, HAWAII.
Hilo.—Hilo, or Byron Bay, on the northeast side of Hawaii, is the only anchorage on the northeast coast; the bay is about 71/2 miles wide and 3 miles deep. It is fully exposed to the northeast, trade wind.
The scene which the island presents, as viewed from the anchorage in Hilo Bay, is novel and beautiful; the shores are shielded with extensive groves of cocoanut and bread fruit trees, interspersed with plantations of sugar cane, through which numerous streams are seen hurrying to the ocean. To this belt succeeds a region some miles in width, free from woods, but clothed in verdure, while beyond is a wider belt of forest, whose trees, as they rise higher and higher from the sea, change their character from the vegetation of the tropics to that of the polar regions. Above all tower the snow-capped summits of the mountains.*
On the coast of the bay near Cocoanut Island lie the creek and village of Whyeatea, where landing may be effected in all weathers. There are two piers to the northward of the entrance of the creek, alongside the northernmost of which ships drawing 15 feet of water can lie. The shore then turns westward along a sandy beach for nearly 1 mile to the bottom of the bay, where the town of Hilo is situated.
Hilo is the principal town in Hawaii, and ranks next to Honolulu in importance and population. The town may be easily recognized from the seaward by the tall white square towers of the Roman Catholic church and the pointed white spire of the Protestant church. There are also several other large buildings, both public and private, such as a court-house, schools, governor's house, stores, etc.
There are several sugar plantations in the vicinity of Hilo on which the town is mainly dependent for prosperity.
Besides sugar and molasses, Hilo exports hides, tallow, goatskins, arrowroot, rice, and a small amount of coffee.
As before stated, the rainfall here is very great, and accounts for the luxuriant verdure of the district.
The Hawaiian Government steam vessels communicate with Hilo from Honolulu once a week, and schooners ply constantly between the two ports. (See Communications and Appendix i.)
Supplies.—Supplies of nearly all descriptions can be obtained: Beef, 10 cents per pound; bread, about 9 cents, and vegetables at 6 cents.
A small pier has been built in front of the town, but in 1888 the sand had washed up and closed it as a landing place. The only landing place is at Whyeatea.
Close to the west of the town is Waterfall Creek, the mouth of Wailuku River, and about 2 miles from the entrance is Cocoanut Point. There is a good watering place up this creek which is generally easy of access, except when the wind is blowing hard from seaward; on such occasions the surf is high, and the rocky bar at the entrance becomes dangerous for boats to pass. The water is excellent and abundant.
Hilo Bay is a safe anchorage, and next to Honolulu may be considered the best in the Hawaiian Islands. With a strong trade wind there is a slight sea, unpleasant enough for boats but not sufficient to endanger the safety of a ship. The westerly wind, which is felt most, seldom blows strongly. A well-sheltered anchorage can be picked up anywhere under the lee of Blonde Reef in from 5 to 7 fathoms. A vessel drawing 15 feet or
*Pacific Islands, Vol. II, Hydrographic Office. Admiralty.
less may anchor so as to be quite under the lee of Cocoanut Island and Keo Kea Point.
Mahukona.—A small village with anchorage off it about 6 miles south of Upolu Point. The place is becoming important, through the energy of a Mr. Wilder, who has made a most convenient landing place, and constructed a railway 15 miles long to bring sugar from the Kohala district round the north end of the island.
The cargo boats lay along the side of the pier and are laden and cleared very quickly by means of a steam "Crab "which works a truck up and down the incline.
There is no water in the place. All the fresh water has to be brought from Kohala by train. An attempt to obtain artesian water failed.
The anchorage is indifferent, and with winds to the westward of north or south would be untenable. Freight is disembarked and shipped at night, during the greater part of the year.
The soil along the shore is barren for 3 or 4 miles inland owing to the want of rain. The face of the country is regular, ascending gradally from the coast to the summit of the high land.
Kawaihae village is situated in a grove of cocoanut trees, just behind a sandy point near the center of the bay of the same name. The village consists (1891) of a general store, 2 or 3 houses, and several huts along the shore. In front of the village is a pier for boats.
So much of the soil of this district as lies along the coast, though rich, is badly watered; 7 or 8 miles inland from Kawaihae Bay it becomes exceedingly rocky and barren.
The climate is upon the whole unpleasant, especially at Waimea, about 9 miles eastward of Kawaihae, in consequence of the exceedingly strong trade wind, which brings with it a mist toward sunset. This wind rushes furiously down between the mountains which bound the valley of Waimea and becomes very dangerous to the shipping in the bay. It is called by the natives mumuku, and is foretold by an illuminated streak seen far inland, believed to be caused by the reflection of the twilight on the mist that always accompanies the mumuku.
The principal exports of the district are hides, tallow, and beef.
On approaching the anchorage a good landmark is a conspicuous mound situated a short distance south of the village. Another conspicuous landmark is a white tomb in the form of a pyramid.
There is a coral reef in front of the village, but a boat passage exists around the north end and close to the shore, where landing is easy.
With strong westerly winds the anchorage would be very exposed and unsafe. The sea breeze from the westward lasts all day, and the northeast trade or land breeze sometimes blows strong all night.
Supplies.—Beef may be obtained here at 6 cents a pound; potatoes are abundant, and plenty of fish may be caught with the seine.
The watering place, which is in a small sandy bay, is only a pool of rain water collected in a hole, and would require 500 feet of hose to pump into a boat. In the summer the water becomes somewhat stagnant and unfit for drinking; in winter more rain falls, and it then becomes a stream.
Settlement—Kailua Bay.—The bay affords a good anchorage at most seasons of the year. (In 1841 the residence of the governor of Hawaii Island was established here, and great advances were being made in the civilized arts and industries.) There is a most convenient landing place on a sandy beach on the west side of the bay, formed by the jutting out of two points, between which is a small cove protected from the surf by rocks.
Rain seldom falls here except in showers, and a rainy day once in the year is looked upon as remarkable. This, together with the absence of all dew, prevents the existence of much cultivation. There grows, nevertheless, a coarse vegetation sufficient to pasture a few hundred goats, and a mile back from the shore the surface is covered with herbage which maintains cattle, etc.; 2 miles in the interior there is sufficient moisture to keep up a constant verdure.
The temperature is mild and equable. During the winter the thermometer ranges from 64° to 85°; summer, 68° to 86°.
The prevailing winds are the land and sea breezes, which are very regular; the most severe gales are those from the southwest, which last from a few hours to two or three days, and render anchorage unsafe.
On approaching Kailua Bay, the town may be recognized by the 2 churches and the cocoanut groves on the shore to the westward.
There is a most convenient landing place, as noted above.
Kona.—Settlement near Kealakekua Bay, situated west side Hawaii; best anchorage on that coast. Climate mild, 62° to 76° in winter, 70° to 86° in summer. Strong winds are seldom felt. During day, cool sea breeze; during night, land breeze. It was at Kealakekua Bay that Capt. Cook was killed (1779). On west of Kanwalda Cove is a village of same name, where the monument to Cook now stands. The shore all around the bay is rocky, making landing dangerous when there is a swell setting in, except at Kealakekua village. Here there is a fine sandy beach, with burying place at one extremity and a small well of fresh water at the other. The bay is easy of access; but anchorage is not good, owing to the great depth of water and foul bottom. Kanwalda Cove, though exposed to winds south and southwest, may be considered safe anchorage, except in winter.
Kona is a village a few miles inland, and is considered one of the most healthy spots in the whole group, and especially beneficial to people suffering from weakness or disease of lungs or chest. It is said that many visitors come here from California to pass the winter, and there are one or two commodious boarding houses for their accommodation.
From the landing place, about half a cable southwest of Cook's monument, there is a good road leading to Kona.
Supplies.—Beef, fowls, sweet potatoes, and plantains can be obtained in Kealakekua; also water at Napupu, a village south of Kealakekua; but the tank is falling to decay, and the water is brackish in all wells in the vicinity of Kanwalda Cove.
Island of Maui (Map E.)
The island of Maui lies northwest of Hawaii. The channel which separates them has a width of 28 miles.
The island is 48 miles long in a west-by-north and east-by-south direction; it is divided into two oval-shaped peninsulas, connected by a low isthmus 6 miles across, and only a few feet higher than the beach.
The whole island, which is volcanic, was probably produced by the action of the two adjacent volcanoes.
Coast.—The southwest point of Maui, Cape Hanamanioa, is formed by rugged, craggy rocks. From here along the coast 25 miles to Alau islet the whole shore is rugged and offers no anchorage or shelter. From seaward the land appears to ascend abruptly; it is densely covered with trees and vegetation, while here and there a few
habitations appear. Alau islet, lying off the east coast of Maui, is very small. Kauiki head, the eastern point of Maui, is an old crater which is connected by a low spit to the mainland, and at a distance appears like an island.
Near this peninsula lies Hana harbor, from which a coast that affords no shelter extends for 31 miles.
The north coast of East Maui is a succession of deep ravines, which gradually diminish in breadth as they ascend, and are finally lost in the flanks of the mountains; traveling along the coast, in consequence, becomes almost impossible. Cascades several hundred feet in height, but having little volume of water, are seen falling into these ravines.
The east coast of West Maui is an abrupt precipice several hundred feet in height, terminating at Kahakuloa Point, the northern extremity of the island. The southern side of West Maui has a forbidding appearance. The shores, however, are not so steep and rocky as elsewhere, and have generally a sandy beach.
Off Makena, near the southwest extremity of the island, lies a small barren islet called Molokini, only visited by fishermen who dry their nets on its barren surface.
Interior.—The eastern peninsula of Maui, the larger of the two, is lofty; but though the mountains are often seen above the clouds, they are never covered with snow.
East Maui rises in an unbroken mountain.
East Maui, although mountainous, has much cultivated land; and the rich volcanic soil of the Kula district, on the southwest side of the island, raises abundant crops of potatoes. Wheat and other grains are also cultivated.
West Maui has many sharp peaks and ridges, which are divided by deep valleys, descending towards the sea, and opening out into sloping plains of considerable extent, in the north and south sides.
The highest peak of West Maui is Mauna Ika, 6,130 feet.
The connecting isthmus consists of sand, which is constantly shifting and is thrown up in dunes; this region is naturally dry, but during nine months of the year affords fine grazing, feeding huge herds of cattle that are mostly owned by foreigners.
The productions of Maui are those of the other islands, with the addition of a few fruits, such as grapes, etc.
The highest point of Maui, named Kolakole, is 10,030 feet above the sea. It is destitute of trees to the height of about 2,000 feet; then succeeds a belt of forest to the height of about 6,500 feet, and again the summit is bare.
The crater of Haleakala is a deep gorge, open at the north and east, forming a kind of elbow. The inside is entirely bare of vegetation. The natives have no tradition of an eruption.
Though arid and sandy in appearance, the soil of the isthmus connecting the two parts of the island is good, deep, and exceedingly fertile where irrigation has been introduced. At Spreckelsville, in the northern part of the peninsula, lie the largest sugar estates of the island.
CITIES, TOWNS, AND PORTS, MAUI.
Hana Harbor.—The anchorage is well protected from the wind and sea, and is very convenient. There is a town here. Details unknown.
Kahului Harbor.—Situated between the coral reefs on the northern side of the low isthmus joining the two peninsulas. Channels about 31/2 cables wide, 4 cables deep, fully exposed to the northward.
Kahului.—An important place for exporting the produce of the northern part of Maui; there are railways connecting it with Wailuku to the westward, and Spreckelsville and Haiku on the east. (See Communications.)
There was being built in 1881, out from the shore near the customhouse, a jetty which it was proposed to extend as far as the edge of the reef.
Anchorage may be obtained in from 21/2 to 7 fathoms.
Wailuku.—A nourishing village about 2 miles northwest of Kahului. Here there is a female seminary occupying an extensive range of coral buildings, beautifully situated on an inclined plane, with high precipices behind. It is considered one of the best organized establishments in the Hawaiian Islands.
Lahaina.—A town situated on the west side of West Maui, and at one time a nourishing place much frequented by whaling vessels for refitting and for obtaining supplies, but now only visited by vessels loading with sugar, which is grown on the estates in the vicinity.
The town is built along the beach for a distance of three-fourths of a mile. It is principally composed of grass houses situated as near the beach as possible. It has one principal street, with a few others at right angles to it. From seaward the town may be recognized by some conspicuous buildings, especially Government House, which is near the beach and has a tall flagstaff before it. The seminary of Lahainaluna is situated on the side of the mountain above the town.
Off the town there is an open roadstead which is completely sheltered from the trade wind by the high land of Maui, but the holding ground is reported indifferent.
Supplies.—Supplies of all sorts can be obtained here—beef, vegetables, fruit, and water in abundance.
Landing.—The landing place is at a small pier, extending from the light-house, and protected by a breakwater.
The tide is irregular, generally running northwest sixteen hours out of the twenty-four.
Patoa.—A roadstead (so called by Vancouver) situated on the southern side of West Maui. "The anchorage at Patoa is abreast of the easternmost of these valleys, which appeared fruitful and well cultivated."
Kamalalaea Bay settlements.—The bay is on the west side of Maui, lying between two peninsulas, the western side formed by rocky cliffs and precipices. Nearly in the middle of this side is a village called Mackerrey, off which is an anchorage in 7 fathoms. No details known.
Maalaea.—Near the head of Kamalalaea Bay, in the northeast corner, is the small village of Maalaea. Here there are some houses for storing sugar. Besides sugar there is a great quantity of wheat, maize, and potatoes grown in this district, and supplies of fresh provisions are obtained in plenty from Wailuku, which is about 6 miles distant.
The anchorage off this place is not good, as the trade wind blows across the low isthmus in heavy gusts, and communication with the shore by boats is sometimes interrupted.
There is a small pier here for loading schooners and boats can always go alongside, the channel leading to the landing place being about 20 yards wide, between two coral reefs.
Makena, or Makees Landing.—A small indentation in the west coast of East Maui, near the southwestern extremity of the island. It
derives the latter name from a planter whose estate is situated on the side of Mauna Haleakala, on a plateau 2,000 feet above the sea and about 5 miles east of the landing place. Near the landing are a stone church and several houses. The anchorage is exposed to the heavy squalls which occasionally blow over the low isthmus in the center of Maui, and landing is at times impracticable for ships' boats owing to the heavy surf. The holding ground is not good.
Island of Kauai. (Map E).
Kauai lies 64 miles west by north of Oahu, and is separated from it by the Kaieie Waho channel. This island is of volcanic formation, somewhat circular in shape, 25 miles long and 22 miles wide, and rises in the center to a peak 5,000 feet in height.
Coast.—From the seaward the northeast and northwest sides appear broken and rugged, but to the south the land is more even; the hills rise with a gentle slope from the shore, and at some distance back are covered with woods.
The southern point of the island is a bold, barren, rocky headland, falling perpendicularly into the sea.
Ninini Point, north point of Nawiliwili Harbor, is low, level, grassy laud, sprinkled with volcanic bowlders extending from a range of low hills that stretch along the coast at a short distance from the beach, which extends northward to Wailua.
Along the coast from Wailua sugar cane appears to be cultivated in large quantities, especially in the vicinity of Wailua and Kanala Point, where there are several factories.
From this point to Hanalei Bay are several small villages scattered along the coast near the mouths of mountain streams which are closed by sand bars. The land near the sea is flat and very fertile, but soon rises to the mountains behind. The rivers as well as the sea abound in fish.
The northwest coast of Kauai, forming the district Na Pali, has a very rugged appearance, rising to lofty abrupt cliffs that jut out into a variety of steep rocky points destitute of both soil and verdure, but terminating nearly in uniform even summits, on which, in the valleys or chasms between them, are several patches of green. Here and there a stream running from the lofty mountains behind finds its way to the ocean.
Mana Point, the western extremity of Kauai, is a long, low sand spit, commencing at the foot of a high range of mountains, and from it a sandy plain extends to the town of Waimea. This plain is from a quarter to a mile wide and 150 feet above the sea, whence it rises gradually to the mountains.
It has a sunburnt appearance and is destitute of trees, except on the low grounds where the cocoanut thrives. The sea here abounds in fish. Between Waimea and Kaloa Bay, the south point of Kauai, extends a series of sunburnt hills and barren plains, sloping gradually to the shore from the mountains, and here and there intersected by ravines. There is no cultivation, and the soil only produces a kind of coarse grass quite unfit for pasture.
Interior.—The island of Kauai is considered one of the most pleasant of the group. Portions of it appear better adapted to agriculture than the other islands, and the coffee and sugar plantations on the weather
side, which is well watered with streams and by frequent rains, are very productive; but the lee side is dry and adapted to cultivation only in valleys.
CITIES, TOWNS, AND PORTS, KAUAI.
Nawiliwili Bay village.—The harbor of Nawiliwili is a small cove on the southeast side of the island, at the head of a bay of this name. The greater part of the harbor is blocked by shoals and reefs.
At Nawiliwili Bay is a large village; the soil in the vicinity is rich, producing sugar cane, taro, beans, sweet potatoes, etc.
There is a small pier in the northwest corner of the harbor, where landing may be easily effected; but the pier should be approached with caution, as a reef extends from the shore to the southward of it for two cables in an easterly direction.
The local mail steamer runs to this point. (See Communications.)
Wailua.—Formerly a place of some importance, 51/2 miles from Ninini Point, situated on a small river of the same name, in a barren sandy spot, surrounded by an extremely fertile district. The river, in common with the others along this coast, is closed at the mouth with sand bars, but inside is deep and navigable by canoes for several miles.
Coast villages.—From Kanala Point, north and west, 14 miles to Hanalei Bay, there are several small villages scattered along the coast, near the mouth of mountain streams closed by sand bars.
Hanalei.—Situated near the bottom of a bay of this name.
Anchorage ground in the bay is spacious in fine weather, but there is only room for about three vessels in bad weather under the lee of the reef near the eastern point of the bay.
A landing is generally effected inside the mouth of the river.
Supplies.—Supplies are plentiful—beef, vegetables, and fruits may be obtained in abundance. Water may be procured by sending boats into the river, which is easy of access in fine weather, and a short distance from the mouth the water is perfectly fresh. The town is very picturesquely placed; the mountains rise to a height of from 3,000 to 4,000 feet, and are clothed with verdure from base to summit, with numeroua rills running down their precipitous sides.
In front of the town is a good beach where great quantities of fish may be caught with a seine.
The district derives its name from the numerous rainbows formed by passing showers. The rains are so frequent as to clothe the country in perpetual green.
On the eastern side of the entrance is a conspicuous dark bluff-head, with two sandy beaches a short distance to the eastward.
A little way to the southward of this bluff is the mouth of a small river, in front of which is a bar that may be crossed by boats at half flood; inside, the bar carries a depth of from one to three quarters of a fathom and is navigable for several miles for boats drawing 3 feet. About 4 cables from the mouth of the river, on the northern bank, is a large farm, called "Charlton farm," owned by the English consul, who keeps a large number of cattle of good breed.
Waimea village.—Situated on Waimea Bay, southwest coast, placed at the mouth of river of the same name, which runs about 15 miles inland. At one time a populous native town, but now (1891) only a small village of little importance. It contains a church.
Boats may ascend the river for about three-quarters of a mile; this is the the only water here that is not brackish. A little to the eastward
of the village a shoal projects. The trade winds, deflected by the mountains, often raise a surf which renders landing at times very unpleasant, sometimes impracticable.
Waimea Bay should be approached with caution, as reefs extend to the southward. There is a railroad from Waimea to Kekaha. No details known.
Kaloa Bay village.—About 1 mile west of the south point of Kauai is a slight indentation of the coast, where there is a considerable village called Kaloa, off which anchorage may be obtained but in a very exposed position.
The country around the village of Kaloa is much broken by hills and inactive craters; but the soil is good, though dry and very stony, and is capable of cultivation in many places. There is a sugar plantation here, and there are several large cattle ranches in the vicinity.
The village may be recognized by many high buildings and two churches; it extends from the beach to a distance of 2 miles up the slope of a hill. Between the village and Makanuena, the southern extremity of the island, there is a low point running out into a rocky ledge that somewhat protects the anchorage.
There is a good landing place at Kaloa, in a small cove protected by a reef extending about 1 cable from shore; an artificial creek has been made at the head of this cove, with sufficient space for one boat to enter.
Supplies.—Supplies of beef, vegetables, and fruit may be obtained in abuudance.
Island of Molokai. (Chart B.)
Molokai is situated north of Lanai, from which it is separated by Pailolo Channel, 61/2 miles wide.
It is apparently formed by a chain of volcanic mountains about 40 miles long and 7 miles broad. The mountains are high and broken by deep ravines and water courses; the sides are clothed with verdure and ornamented with shrubs and trees.
Coast.—Lae o Ka Laau, the southwest extremity of Molokai, is a low black point. On the south side of the island are several small harbors, the best of which is Kaunakakai, midway between the two extremes.
From this point to the southeast extremity of the island the distance by the coast is about 21 miles, thence northward to Kalaua, the northeast point, about 2 miles.
Some 16 miles from Kalaua, and on a peninsula projecting about 2 miles into the sea, is placed the leper settlement of the Hawaiian Islands.
Interior.—One-third of the island of Molokai, towards the west end, is a barren waste not susceptible of cultivation, except in the rainy season. It has in consequence but few inhabitants, who are engaged mostly in fishing.
The eastern two-thirds is almost one entire mountain, rising gradually from the south until it attains an elevation of 2,500 feet, while on the north it is almost perpendicular. On the south side there is a narrow strip of land not exceeding a quarter of a mile in width, where dwell the greater part of the population. The soil is very rich, but owing to the want of moisture few plants will thrive even here. Resort is therefore had to the uplands, which are found to be susceptible of the highest degree of cultivation.
S. Doc. 231, pt 6----28
CITIES, TOWNS, AND PORTS, MOLOKAI.
Kaunakakai.—A town or village situated on the south side of Molokai, midway between the extremes. There are outer and inner anchorages: former not good, latter limited.
No supplies are to be obtained at Kaunakakai. No details of town known.
Kalanao.—Situated near the center of the north coast of Molokai, at the base of very precipitous mountains. The leper establishment was erected here about 1865. The anchorage is to the southward of a low point, extending from the foot of two remarkable, steep mountains. It can not be considered safe, being exposed to a heavy swell; landing at Kalanao, always difficult, is at times dangerous.
Supplies.—No supplies can be obtained.
Island of Lanai, or Ranai. (Chart B.)
Lies 16 miles northwest of Kahulaui, and is separated from West Maui by Auau Channel, 71/2 miles wide. Lanai is a dome-shaped island, about 17 miles long and 9 miles broad. Large fissures are visible on its sides.
The center of this island is much more elevated than Kahulaui, but is neither so high nor so broken as any of the other islands.
Great part of it is barren, and the island in general suffers much from the long droughts which prevail. The ravines and glens, notwithstanding, are filled with thickets of small trees.
The island is volcanic; the soil shallow and by no means fertile. The shores abound with shellfish.
Sheep in large numbers, it is said, are pastured here.
CITIES, TOWNS, AND PORTS, LANAI.
No towns noted; probably none exist.
Island of Niihau. (Chart B.)
The island lies 17 miles west-southwest of Kauai, from which it is separated by Kumukahi Channel. It is about 20 miles long by 7 miles broad.
This island is mostly lowland, except on the eastern side, where it rises directly from the sea to a height of 1,500 feet, and is rocky and unfit for cultivation. On the western side is a level plain from 2 to 4 miles wide, where the natives cultivate yams, fruits, sweet potatoes, etc. The soil being dry, the yams grow to great size. The natives are few in number and very poor; they live almost entirely on the western side of the island.
Of late years Niihau has been used as a sheep run, and in 1875 there were said to be about 70,000 sheep on the island.
The eastern shore of Niihau is rocky and wholly destitute of shelter, but on the western shore there are several open roadsteads.
CITIES, TOWNS, AND PORTS, NIIHAU.
Yam Bay.—An open roadstead about a mile and a half south of Kona Point, where, in fine weather, anchorage may be obtained. There is
only one place in the bay where boats can effect a landing in safety when the sea sets in, a common occurrence; this is on the western side behind a small reef of rocks that lies a little way off the beach; even here it is necessary to guard against sunken rocks. No inhabitants noted.
Cook anchorage.—On the southwest of Niihau, about 4 miles south of Kona Point; is exposed to the heavy northwesterly swell; the bottom is composed of large rocks, with patches of sand.
Near the beach are a few huts, a church, and a derrick for loading and unloading boats.
Landing.—The landing place is protected by some rocks forming a breakwater in the northeast part of the bay, and is situated just inside a lava patch which from seaward appears like a point. Landing can be effected easily in moderate weather, but with a heavy swell it is impracticable.
Supplies.—Whalers call here occasionally for fresh meat, but the sheep being bred for wool only, very little meat can be procured; and only a limited quantity of vegetables and fruit.
Fresh water can only be procured during the rainy season, when the water courses are full; at other times of the year there is no water but what the natives have collected in wells in the rock for their own use; these wells are chiefly near the south end of the island.
Caution.—As the rollers set in with but little warning at Cook anchorage, sailing vessels should proceed to sea on first indications of them. These rollers generally last from three to four days.
Island of Kahulaui. (Chart B.)
Called also Tahurowa, separated from East Maui by Alalakeiki Channel, 6 miles wide, is about 11 miles in length and 8 miles wide.
It is low and almost destitute of every kind of shrub or verdure, excepting a species of coarse grass. The rocks of which it is formed are volcanic, but nothing is known of any active or extinct craters on the island.
At one time this island was used as a penal settlement; but it is now chiefly used as a sheep run, the soil of decomposed lava being of too poor a quality for cultivation.
CITIES, TOWNS, AND PORTS, KAHULAUI.
No towns noted; probably none exist.
Island of Kaula. (Chart B.)
This island, called also Tahura, lies 17 miles southwest one-half west from Niihau. It is a small, elevated, barren rock, destitute of vegetation, and uninhabited. It is visited to collect the eggs of sea birds, which abound.
Island of Lenua. (Chart B.)
Lenua, or Egg Island, lies off the north point of Niihau. It is a small, rugged, barren rock, apparently destitute of soil and without sign of habitation.
Island of Molokini. (Chart B.)
A small islet of the island of Maui, which see.
Communications of the Hawaiian Islands.
There are, according to the Statesman's Tear Book for 1893, 56 miles of railway in the islands of Hawaii, Maui, and Oahu. These roads were built principally for the transportation of products from the interior to the seaports.
RAILROADS OF OAHU.
Oahu Railroad. —This line extends from Honolulu, 19 miles, to Ewa plantation; passing around Pearl Lochs, with a branch along the peninsula to Pearl City, and a spur extending into a quarry at Palama. Roadbed good. It is proposed to run the railroad completely around the island.
Depots.—There is an excellent depot at Honolulu; also turntable. Stations, with suitable houses, at intervals along the line. A fine depot, also turntable, exists at Pearl City.
Wharfage.—The company's wharf at Honolulu is 60 feet wide and 200 feet long and is ample for present needs. Products can be unloaded directly from cars to vessels and vice versa.
Rolling stock, etc.—The rolling stock and equipments are of the most approved and modern style.
At the port of Waianae, in northwest portion of Oahu, there are several small railroads, in all about 4 or 5 miles, branching to plantations in the interior and along the coast. About these there are, however, no obtainable data.
RAILROADS OF HAWAII.
In Hawaii, from Mahukona to the Kohola district, some 15 miles of railroad exist.
RAILROADS OF MAUI.
In the island Maui a little railway of very narrow gauge now connects Wailuku and Kaluilui. The railway also extends 3 miles further eastward to the sugar mills of the great plantation of Sprecklesville, in all 13 miles.
(The distances between these places are given from the overland distance tables in the Hawaiian Annual for 1893.)
Data concerning gauge, quantity of rolling stock, etc., as well as reliable maps, are at present unobtainable.
RAILROADS OF KAUI.
On the island of Kaui there is (according to the Hydrographic Office chart of Waimea Bay) a railroad from "Waimea village to Kekaha. No details known.
There are a few well-constructed roads on the Island of Oahu, leading from Honolulu to places of interest to tourists; but in general the roads on the island are not good, being frequently heavy with sand and muddy in wet districts. No positive information obtainable.
There are telegraphs round the island of Oahu as well as in Hawaii and Maui. Oahu. and Hawaii are connected by telegraphic cable. Total length of telegraphs, 250 miles.
Telephones are in general use in Honolulu and probably elsewhere on the islands.
For Hawaiian Islands postal service and post-offices.
INTER-ISLAND STEAMERS AND VESSELS.
There are 22 coasting steamers plying between the ports of the island, of which 9 belong the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Company, 7 to the Wilder Steamship Company, and the remainder to various private owners.
There are also 25 sailing vessels belonging to various firms and owners.
There are, besides, 2 steam and 6 sailing merchantmen and traders of Hawaiian register plying between the islands and foreign ports.
In his report to the Hawaiian legislative assembly of 1884, the president of the board of health makes the assertion that "Hawaii has to meet a calamity of widespread disease. ٭ ٭ At least 2 per cent of her entire native population is attacked by a fearful and supposed incurable malady [leprosy], of an exceptioual character, that demands separation and isolation." In the same report it is shown that the appropriation of $90,000, for the segregation and care of lepers, voted in 1882, for the biennial period closing March 31,1884, had fallen short of the demands upon the health authorities. The Hawaiian law has provided for the strict segregation of lepers since 1865, and the district of Kalawao on Molokai, a territory of about 5,000 acres, was selected at that time for the leper settlement.
It is asserted that up to 1882 at least, the law requiring segregation was not carried out with vigor, but it is shown that under the partial enforcement of the law during sixteen years prior to June 1, 1882, 2,602 cases, an average of 162.62 cases per year, had been sent to the
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