434-435

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Reports of Committee on Foreign Relations 1789-1901 Volume 6 pp434-435 300dpi scan (VERY LARGE!)

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CITIES, TOWNS, AND PORTS, MOLOKAI.

Kaunakakai.—A town or village situated on the south side of Molokai, midway between the extremes. There are outer and inner anchorages: former not good, latter limited.

No supplies are to be obtained at Kaunakakai. No details of town known.

Kalanao.—Situated near the center of the north coast of Molokai, at the base of very precipitous mountains. The leper establishment was erected here about 1865. The anchorage is to the southward of a low point, extending from the foot of two remarkable, steep mountains. It can not be considered safe, being exposed to a heavy swell; landing at Kalanao, always difficult, is at times dangerous.

Supplies.—No supplies can be obtained.

Island of Lanai, or Ranai. (Chart B.)

Lies 16 miles northwest of Kahulaui, and is separated from West Maui by Auau Channel, 71/2 miles wide. Lanai is a dome-shaped island, about 17 miles long and 9 miles broad. Large fissures are visible on its sides.

The center of this island is much more elevated than Kahulaui, but is neither so high nor so broken as any of the other islands.

Great part of it is barren, and the island in general suffers much from the long droughts which prevail. The ravines and glens, notwithstanding, are filled with thickets of small trees.

The island is volcanic; the soil shallow and by no means fertile. The shores abound with shellfish.

Sheep in large numbers, it is said, are pastured here.

CITIES, TOWNS, AND PORTS, LANAI.

No towns noted; probably none exist.

Island of Niihau. (Chart B.)

The island lies 17 miles west-southwest of Kauai, from which it is separated by Kumukahi Channel. It is about 20 miles long by 7 miles broad.

This island is mostly lowland, except on the eastern side, where it rises directly from the sea to a height of 1,500 feet, and is rocky and unfit for cultivation. On the western side is a level plain from 2 to 4 miles wide, where the natives cultivate yams, fruits, sweet potatoes, etc. The soil being dry, the yams grow to great size. The natives are few in number and very poor; they live almost entirely on the western side of the island.

Of late years Niihau has been used as a sheep run, and in 1875 there were said to be about 70,000 sheep on the island.

The eastern shore of Niihau is rocky and wholly destitute of shelter, but on the western shore there are several open roadsteads.

CITIES, TOWNS, AND PORTS, NIIHAU.

Yam Bay.—An open roadstead about a mile and a half south of Kona Point, where, in fine weather, anchorage may be obtained. There is

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only one place in the bay where boats can effect a landing in safety when the sea sets in, a common occurrence; this is on the western side behind a small reef of rocks that lies a little way off the beach; even here it is necessary to guard against sunken rocks. No inhabitants noted.

Cook anchorage.—On the southwest of Niihau, about 4 miles south of Kona Point; is exposed to the heavy northwesterly swell; the bottom is composed of large rocks, with patches of sand.

Near the beach are a few huts, a church, and a derrick for loading and unloading boats.

Landing.—The landing place is protected by some rocks forming a breakwater in the northeast part of the bay, and is situated just inside a lava patch which from seaward appears like a point. Landing can be effected easily in moderate weather, but with a heavy swell it is impracticable.

Supplies.—Whalers call here occasionally for fresh meat, but the sheep being bred for wool only, very little meat can be procured; and only a limited quantity of vegetables and fruit.

Fresh water can only be procured during the rainy season, when the water courses are full; at other times of the year there is no water but what the natives have collected in wells in the rock for their own use; these wells are chiefly near the south end of the island.

Caution.—As the rollers set in with but little warning at Cook anchorage, sailing vessels should proceed to sea on first indications of them. These rollers generally last from three to four days.

Island of Kahulaui. (Chart B.)

Called also Tahurowa, separated from East Maui by Alalakeiki Channel, 6 miles wide, is about 11 miles in length and 8 miles wide.

It is low and almost destitute of every kind of shrub or verdure, excepting a species of coarse grass. The rocks of which it is formed are volcanic, but nothing is known of any active or extinct craters on the island.

At one time this island was used as a penal settlement; but it is now chiefly used as a sheep run, the soil of decomposed lava being of too poor a quality for cultivation.

CITIES, TOWNS, AND PORTS, KAHULAUI.

No towns noted; probably none exist.

Island of Kaula. (Chart B.)

This island, called also Tahura, lies 17 miles southwest one-half west from Niihau. It is a small, elevated, barren rock, destitute of vegetation, and uninhabited. It is visited to collect the eggs of sea birds, which abound.

Island of Lenua. (Chart B.)

Lenua, or Egg Island, lies off the north point of Niihau. It is a small, rugged, barren rock, apparently destitute of soil and without sign of habitation.


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