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been represented to Great Britain; and in case the ministers are rejected by Her Britannic Majesty, then subject to any arrangements which may be entered into.
" 'Simpson took the paper and walked in the veranda with Lord George, and, returning, said that would do; he would make a copy with very few verbal alterations.
" 'It was arranged that the chiefs should have an opportunity to consider these things, and an answer to be given to-morrow noon. Lord George and Simpson left. King and Auhea sat with astonishment and misery. Discussed awhile in council, when I left them in order to take some refreshment. When I returned I found them anxious to gain further information. The subject of ceding to France and the United States was a ray of hope which seemed to gleam across their dark path, but they foresaw that under such circumstances they would still have this fury—Simpson—to deal with until the French took possession, and he would doubtless involve them in more trouble, and their cause become too bad to admit of justification. France is still acting a hostile part towards them. Charlton and Simpson are their enemies, but England is their friend.
" 'To England they look up with the most filial affections. France is picking a quarrel with them now, and complaints are now in existence which will make more trouble. If the claims of Simpson are allowed the laws will suffer and the nation be weakened so much that France will leave them nothing. England can defend them from France, and to cede to France would be to say England had no right here, which is to the Government more than doubtful, reckoning right as the nations do. This might be considered an act of treachery.
" 'May be that their independence is secured already. If so, a forcible possession on the part of either would annul it. A cession would not if made with provisos.
" 'In the evening I went for Lord George, who, together with Simpson and Dr. Rooke, came. Regulated a few points respecting the course he should pursue in case he took possession. Informed them that we should take every possible step to justify the Government and get back the islands, and he demanded a pledge that such exertions be not considered an act of hostility to them.
" 'It was agreed that a decision should be made by 12 o'clock on the 25th. Lord George went away. Every possible view of the case was taken up by the council, and the result seemed to be to give up the islands on the terms proposed.
" '25th. The King sent for me before breakfast. Wished to know what I thought of the old proposition of ceding to France and the United States. I said I feared it would involve the Government in great trouble. The French admiral would soon be here and take possession, which would excite hostility between Catholics and Protestants; meanwhile Simpson would continue his course of conduct, and the difficulties would become inextricable. Give yourself into the arms of Great Britain, trust to the generosity of that great and good nation, you may have the benefit of the intervention of France for the adjustment of difficulties and the security of your independence. Let them take possession, and then you can represent your case in full. Lord George called. I informed him that the matter was nearly decided. One of the propositions that came from me was waived, viz, that a commission be appointed to adjust the claims of British subjects.
" 'Dudoit called and many others. Every argument used to induce the King to cede to France and the United States. Sat down to put
the documents into form. The King proposed to make a speech. I said they could make that out among themselves, which they did. Deed of cession being ready, the chiefs came in and it was read. Sorrow and distress marked every countenance. I was asked to pray. During prayer sighs suppressed were often heard. I committed the case to God, imploring His blessing on the step about to be taken as the only peaceful alternative for the nation, etc. When I rose not an individual left his knees for a full minute, and then I saw that tears had come to their relief. They sat in silence for a moment when the King arose, and with a firm step seized a pen and subscribed his name. "Let it go," said he, "if I get help I get it, if not, let it go; I can do no more." The premier then added her signature.' (Extract from a journal kept by Mr. Judd, who was minister of the King to conduct negotiations with Lord George Paulet, pp. 164, 165, and 166.)
"Having decided upon a provisional cession of his dominions to Great Britain, the King announced the event to his subjects in a touching proclamation:
" ' Where are you, chiefs, people, and commons from my ancestors, and people from foreign lands?
" ' Hear ye! I make known to you that I am in perplexity by reason of difficulties into which I have been brought without cause; therefore, I have given away the life of our land, hear ye! But my rule over you, my people, and your privileges, will continue, for I have hope that the life of the land will be restored when my conduct is justified.
" 'Done at Honolulu, Oahu, this 25th day of February, 1843.
"On the 28th of November, the Hawaiian commissioners obtained from the governments of France and England a joint declaration to the effect that—
" 'Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and His Majesty the King of the French, taking into consideration the existence in the Sandwich Islands of a government capable of providing for the regularity of its relations with foreign nations, have thought it right to engage reciprocally to consider the Sandwich Islands as an independent state, and never to take possession, neither directly nor under the title of protectorate, nor under any other form, of any part of the territory of which they are composed.
" 'The undersigned, Her Majesty's principal secretary of state for foreign affairs, and the ambassador extraordinary of His Majesty the King of the French at the court of London, being furnished with the necessary powers, hereby declare in consequence that their said majesties take reciprocally that engagement.
" 'In witness whereof the undersigned have signed the present declaration, and have affixed thereto the seal of their arms.
"' Done in duplicate, at London, the 28th day of November, in the year of our Lord 1843.
" 'ABERDEEN. [L.S.]
" 'ST. AULAIRE. [L.S.],
"This solemn engagement on the part of these two powers was the flnal act by which the Kingdom of Hawaii was admitted within the pale of eivilized nations."
"No measure tends more to consolidate and render a nation prosperous
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