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crimes are rare. There have been but five executions for three murders for ten years.

"It is incontrovertible that there yet exists in the nation a large body of people who are equally disposed to religious rites, or to acts of a different character, as may be most accordant to the taste of those whom they wish to gratify. Another generation must arise, with better homes and more civil and religious advantages, before the habits of the old are sufficiently eradicated. While evidence for the more favorable view of missionary labor, to a partial investigator, appears conclusive, ample grounds for the opposite opinion exists. The truth lies in neither extreme. The friends of humanity have just cause to be grateful that so much has been accomplished, and should labor earnestly that the remaining dark spots may be wholly effaced."

"The government of the Kingdom is essentially Christian. Founded upon missionary teaching, it derives its principles and objects from gospel ethics. Under its influence, the despotism of the chiefs over life and property has been abolished and the nation invited to lay hold of its rights in both. Laws favorable to virtue, industry, and increase of population have been enacted. Families having 3 children of their own are freed from taxation; those having more are rewarded by gifts of lands. The natives are encouraged to secure allodial titles by a remission of all taxes on such for twenty years. Taxation is lightened and made stimulative to honest industry. The present laws are equitable and protective. Justice is fairly administered and the soundest principles of classical and modern law have become the professed guides of the courts.

"Commerce has brought among the nation many foreigners, in every way an advantage to the morals and enterprise of the natives. Scattered throughout the group they provide them, almost at the very doors of their huts, with ample supplies of foreign goods of all descriptions at fair prices, receiving in return the avails of native labor. They have furnished them with cattle and the vegetable products of other countries, and introduced the arts, trades, and professions of civilized life. The examples and encouragements of civilized households are thus brought to their very thresholds. They have given a value to the time of the native by creating a demand for his labor, and have equally bestowed a value to his hitherto unproductive lands by practically developing the hidden wealth of the soil.

"The most indifferent industry is sure of ample reward. Vice, as in other lands, has no apology for an existence here on the plea of a superabundance of labor in the honest branches of livelihood. Not a man need be a thief from necessity, nor a woman unchaste from want. Lands everywhere lie groaning in wild luxuriance, crying out for hands to till them. The handicraft of women, and even the services of children are in constant demand. Commerce has raised the remuneration of the former and the wages of the laborers to the highest rate of stimulative reward.

"The policy of the Government is essentially protective to the Hawaiian race, to the intent to fully solve the question of their capability of civilization. The white advisers of the King, having this end practically in view, fail to meet the more enlarged views and desires of white residents, who look upon the final extermination or loss of the native race and dynasty as their destiny, and consequently desire to see the fullest encouragement offered for the ingress and permanent settlement of a foreign population and capital. While

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these would urge the Government on with a rapidity commensurate with Anglo-Saxon spirit and intelligence, the native race by their slowness of apprehension and fears for their security in case the full torrent of civilized emigration and enterprise is let in unrestrained upon them, hold them back. On the one hand the Government is as unable fully to satisfy the cravings of the whites to advance, as it is to bring the native mind to a clear appreciation and faithful carrying out of the measures best adapted to benefit it and render it more capable of assimilating with the superior intelligence of Anglo-Saxon intellect. They steadily endeavor to preserve the Hawaiian race; to christianize and civilize them; and to this end they invite a limited cooperation of foreign aid, enough to innoculate the nation with courage and enterprise, without deluging it in a torrent which in their present condition they would inevitably fail to bear up against. In this way a just middle course is adopted, which it would seem from past experience tends to build up a mixed Hawaiian and foreign race, civilized, moral, and industrious, and capable of taking an elevated position in the ranks of minor nations."

XVII. Also the following extracts from the honolulu directory and historical sketch of the hawaiian or sandwich islands, by c. c. bennett, including a chronological table of notable events connected with hawaiian history.

"1736. Kamehameha I born at Kokoiki, Kohala.

"1740. The King of Oahu, on the passage to Molokai, sees a ship.

"1768. Kaahumanu born.

"1775. Kaahumanu becomes the wife of Kamehameha I.

"1779. January 17 Capt. Cook anchored in the bay of Kealakekua, Hawaii.

"February 14 Capt. Cook was slain at Kaawaloa, Hawaii.

"1782. April, Kalaniopuu died, leaving his Kingdom (western Hawaii), to Kiwalao, who was his own son.

"July, the battle named Mokuahae, i. e., the fight of Kamehameha with Kiwalao and his party at Keomo, Hawaii, Kamehameha triumphed, Kiwalao was slain, and Keoua became King of Kau and Puna.

"Keawemauhili reigns as King at Hilo, Hawaii.

"Keaulumoku composed the mele Haui Ka Lani, or a prophecy of the overthrow of Hawaii by Kamehameha.

"1790 first American ship (Eleanor, Capt. Metcalf), visited the islands.

"Keona was taken prisoner by Kamehameha at Koapapaa, Hamakua, Hawaii, and Kamehameha thus became sole King of the whole island.

"John Young and Isaac Davis became attached to Kamehameha.

"1791. In this year the battle of Nuuanu was fought, in which Kalanikupule, son of Kahekili, King of Maui and Oahu, was slain, and thus Maui, Molokai, Lanai, and Oahu fell into the hands of Kamehameha.

"1792. March 3, Capt. Vancouver first visited the islands, and left cattle, sheep, etc.

"The Daedalus, store ship, visited Waimea, Oahu; a massacre.

"1793. March 12, Vancouver anchored at Lahaina.

"1794. December, first discovery of Honolulu Harbor. Entered by Jackal and Prince Leboo, American.

"Kekuanaoa born.

"1795. January 12, last visit of Vancouver.

" Daedalus visits Niihau; massacre. January 1, murder of captains.

"1797. Liholiho (Kamehameha II) was born.

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"1801. The fleet of canoes called Peleleu arrived at Kawaihae.

"1802. The Peleleu arrived at Labaina.

"1803. The Peleleu arrived at Oahu.

"1804. The great pestilence called a ahulau okuu.

"1812. The stone wall of Kiholo was built.

"1814. March, Kauikeaouli (Kamehameha III) was born.

"1817. The fort at Honolulu finished.

"1819. May 8, Kamehameha I died.

"October, Liholiho breaks kapu on the night of kukahi.

"1820. January, a battle on account of breaking kapu, at Kuamoo on Hawaii.

"March 30, first missionaries arrived at Kailua.

"April 18, missionaries first arrived at Honolulu.

"July, Messrs. Whitney and Ruggles sailed for Kauai."

"First whaler (Mary, Capt. Allen) enters Honolulu Harbor.

"1821. First house of Christian worship built in Honolulu.

"1822. January 7, printing first commenced at the islands. It is said that King Liholiho was allowed to pull the first sheet.

"1823. April 27, the second company of missionaries arrived.

"November 27, Liholiho, his Queen, and attendants sailed for England, leaving the Kingdom in the care of Kaahumanu.

"1824, July 8, Kamamalu, wife of Libolibo, died in London.

"July 13, Libolibo died in London.

"August, Kapiolani descended into the volcano of Kilauea.

"1825, May 4, Boki and his companions return from England with the remains of the King and Queen in the English frigate Blonde.

"1827, October, Kinau and Kekuanaoa were married.

"1828, March 30, the third company of missionaries arrived.

"July 3, first meetinghouse at Honolulu dedicated.

"December 2, Boki and his company sailed away from the islands and were lost.

"1830, December 11, His Majesty Kamehameha V was born.

"1831, June 7, the fourth company of missionaries arrived.

"September, the high school at Lahaina was commenced.

"1832, May 17, the fifth company of missionaries arrived.

"June 5, Kaahumanu died.

"June, Kinau was appointed premier (kuhina nui).

"The Oahu Charity School was commenced.

"1833, March, Kamehameha III assumes the reins of government, and Kinau becomes his minister (Kuhina Nui).

"May 1, the sixth company of missionaries arrived.

"The Bethel Church built'at Honolulu.

"1834, February 9, Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiha) was born.

"February 14, first newspaper printed at the Hawaiian Islands, called the Lama Hawaii, at Lahainaluna.

"The newspaper Kumu Hawaii commenced at Honolulu.

"1835, June 6, the seventh company of missionaries arrived.

"First Hawaiian Almanac printed.

"1836, January 2, the queen dowager, Emma, was born.

"The female seminary at Wailuku, Maui, commenced.

"The first weekly newspaper in English commenced.

"The high school of Mr. Lyman commenced at Hilo.

"December, Nahienaena died.

"1837, February 4, Kamehameha III and Kalama were married.

"April 9, the eighth company of missionaries arrived.

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"The business of laying out public streets in Honolulu was commenced.

"November 7, remarkable rise and overflow of tide throughout the islands.

"1838, August, the chiefs commence the study of political economy with Mr. Richards.

"November 1, Victoria Kamamalu was born.

"April 4, Kinau died.

"1839. April 5, Kekauluohi became premier (Kuhina Nui.)

"May 10, the printing of the first edition of the Hawaiian bible finished.

"July 9, the French man-of-war L'Artemise (Capt. Laplace) arrived.

"Kaikioewa died.

"1840. The school for the young chiefs commenced at Honolulu— Mr. and Mrs. Cook teachers.

"January, Hoapili, governor of Naui, died.

"The stone meeting-house at Kawaiahao, Honolulu, commenced.

"August 3, Mr. Bingham and family returned to the United States.

"October 8, Kamehameha III gives the first written constitution to the people of the Hawaiian Islands.

"October 20, Kamanawa and his servant were publicly executed for crime.

"September. The United States exploring expedition arrived.

"1841, May. Kapiolani died.

"May 21. The ninth company of missionaries arrived.

"The school for missionaries' children at Punahou (now Oahu College) commenced.

"1842. January, Hoapili Wahine (Kalakaua) died.

"July 8, Haalilio sailed as commissioner to the courts of France, England, and the United States.

"July 21, the meetinghouse at Kawaihal finished.

"September 21, the tenth company of missionaries arrived.

"1843. The United States consent to the independence of the Hawaiian Islands.

"February 25, Lord George Paulet seized the Hawaiian Islands and raised the English flag.

"July 31, the sovereignty of the islands was restored by Admiral Thomas, of the English navy.

"September, Baitimeus Puaaiki died.

"1844. The Government of Belgium consents to the independence of the Hawaiian Islands.

"November 28, the governments of England and France recognize the independence of the Hawaiian Islands.

"July 15, the eleventh company of missionaries arrived.

"Silk exported from the islands—197 pounds.

"Haalilio died on his return voyage to the islands.

"1845. April 2, representatives first chosen from the common people under the constitution of October, 1840.

"Mr. Richards, the interpreter of Haalilio, returned with his remains.

"Kekauluohi died.

"First export of coffee—248 pounds.

"John Young (Keoni Ana) is appointed premier (kuhina nui).

"1846. February 11, commissioners appointed to settle land claims.

"March 20, Mr. Whitney died at Lahainaluna.

"1847. Mr. Richards died.

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"Governor Kuakini died.

"First appearance of Mormons at Honolulu, en route for California.

"1848. Leleiohoku (William Pitt) died.

"Moses Kaikoewa died.

"Kaiminaauao died.

"The twelfth company of missionaries arrived.

"The measles (mai puupuu ula) prevailed, and was very fatal.

"1849. The fort seized at Honolulu by Admiral Tromelin, of the French navy.

"Beef first exported from the islands—158 barrels.

"Keliiahonui died.

"1850. James Young Kanehoa died. Kaoanaeha died.

"1851. The Hawaiian Missionary Society was formed.

"Kekauonohi died.

"June, the court house at Honolulu built.

"First whale oil and bone transshipped.

"1852. April 2, Kaliokalani died.

"First export of fungus.

"1853. The smallpox (mai puupuu liilii) swept over the islands.

"1854. The fort at Lahaina demolished by order of the Government.

"December 15, Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) died, and Kamehameha IV became King.

"1855. Paki died.

"Mr. Hitchcock, of Molokai, died.

"Flour exported—463 barrels.

"1856. Juue 2, Kamehameha IV was united in marriage with Emma Rooke.

"Isaac Davis was married to Ruta Keelikolani.

"1857, the fort at Honolulu was demolished by order of the Government.

"Konia (widow of Paki) died.

"John Young (Keoni Ana), the premier, died.

"Victoria Kamamalu appointed Kuhina Nui.

"May 28, William L. Lee, chief justice of the supreme court, died, aged, 36.

"David Malo, native Hawaiian historian, died.

"Honeybees first introduced, by the R. H. Agricultural Society.

"Oahu prison built.

"1858, May 20, birth of the Prince of Hawaii.

"Rice first systematically cultivated near Honolulu.

"Sailors' Home established.

"1859, July, Rev. L. Smith's premises burnt.

"April 20, Jona Piikoi died, aged 50.

"April 26, laying of corner stone, Odd Fellows' Hall.

"January 7, dedication of Odd Fellows' Hall.

"February, eruption of volcano on Mauna Loa, running down to Wainanalii.

"The civil code published.

"Gaslight first introduced into Honolulu.

"September 9, William Pitt Kinau, son of Leleiohoku and R. Keelikolani, died at Kohala, Hawaii, aged 17.

"1860, May 5, arrival of Japanese embassy en route to the United States.

"New custom-house built, Honolulu.

"Queen's hospital built.

"Honolulu flour mill and foundry burned.

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"Steamer Kilauea arrived.

"Prince L. Kamehameha (Kamehameha V) sailed for California.

"September 23, Rev. Dr. E. Armstrong, minister of public instruction, died.

"Passage of the 'law to mitigate,' etc.

"1862. April, Palmyra Island, in latitude 5° 50' N., longitude 161° 53' W., taken possession of by Capt. Z. Bent, for Kamehameha IV and his successors, and subsequently declared by royal proclamation to be a part of the Hawaiian domain.

"August 27, death of the Prince of Hawaii, aged 4 years, 3 mouths and 7 days.

"The funeral took place September 7.

"Lahainaluna Seminary burned and was rebuilt the same year.

"October 11, Reformed Catholic Church mission arrived.

"1863. November 30, His Majesty Kamehameha IV died, aged 29 years, 9 months, and 21 days, and Prince Kamehameha ascended the throne as Kamehameha V.

"1864. May 5, convention of delegates to amend the constitution called by the King.

"July 7, convention opened.

"August 13, convention dissolved and constitution abrogated.

"August 20, new constitution granted by the King.

"L. Haalelea died.

"1865. October 19, E. C. Wyllie, minister of foreign relations, died, aged 67.

"Queen Emma visited the United States and Europe.

"January 27, arrival of the steamer Ajax from California.

"1865. May 29, H.R.H. Princess V. Kamamalu died, aged 27 years 6 months and 29 days.

"July 20, J. Dudoit, formerly French consul, murdered.

"October 22, return of Queen Emma.

"1867. March 12, G. M. Robertson, first associate justice of the supreme court, died, aged 47.

"1868. November 4, His Highness Mataio Kekuanaoa, father of the late King and his present Majesty, died, aged 75 years.

"1869. July 21, arrival of H.R.H. Alfred Ernest, Duke of Edinburg, in command of H. B. M.'s ship Galatea.

"August 2, light-house at the entrance of Honolulu Harbor permanently lighted.

XVIII. Deed of cession.

"The deed of cession reads as follows:

" ' In consequence of the difficulties of complying with the demands in the manner in which they are made by Her Britannic Majesty's representative upon us, in reference to the claims of British subjects, we do hereby cede the group of islands known as the Hawaiian (or Sandwich) Islands unto the Right Honorable Lord George Paulet, captain of Her Britannic Majesty's ship of war Carysfort, representing Her Majesty Victoria, Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, from this date and the time being; the said cession being made with the reservation that it is subject to any arrangement that may have been entered into by the representatives appointed by us to treat with the Government of Her Britannic Majesty; and in the event that no agreement has been

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