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white men and the natives and Mr. Hall. Such was my feeling at that time that I had no more allegiance for this Queen.
Senator Sherman. That was the 16th?
Mr. Emerson. Yes, sir.
Senator Sherman. What day were the troops ordered there? Give the history of the event.
Mr. Emerson. Then I went home to dinner, and in the afternoon I attended the mass meeting. Things culminated at the mass meeting.
Senator Sherman. That was on the 16th?
Mr. Emerson. The 16th.
The Chairman. Where was that meeting held?
Mr. Emerson. In the skating rink.
The Chairman. How many persons were present?
Mr. Emerson. From a thousand to fifteen hundred. Fifteen hundred, maybe. I sat front and could not say exactly. There were considerably over a thousand.
The Chairman. Any Kanakas there?
Mr. Emerson. My clerk came and sat with me.
The Chairman. Any others?
Mr. Emerson. I did hear of others being there. I believe there were some half-whites there. But it was a meeting mostly of white men, white citizens. There was most intense feeling.
The Chairman. Who presided?
Mr. Emerson. Mr. William Wilder. There was most intense feeling. Mr. Wilder opened the meeting and made a statement of why they were there. In brief, he introduced the speakers. I know Mr. Thurston was a speaker, and also a German who spoke, and there was an Englishman who spoke. There were a great many Portuguese there. I am not sure that there was a speech made in Portuguese.
The Chairman. Do you recollect what Mr. Wilder said in opening that meeting? Do you think you can recall it so that you can state it to the committee?
Mr. Emerson. No, I can not.
Senator Sherman. And how soon after that were the troops landed from the Boston?
Mr. Emerson. While this meeting was being held in the skating rink there was also a rally of the people who were the supporters of the palace, the Queen, in the palace square. I do not know how many were there.
The Chairman. You were not present there?
Mr. Emerson. I was not present, although my friend, Mr. Hooes, was with me. He was a chaplain in the United States Navy. And my brother was with me. They left me to go down the street to the Palace Square, to see what was going on. I think they said some five hundred or more were there, and that there was a good deal of feeling. And so strong was the feeling that the speakers did not dare excite the populace, but felt that the time had come for them to restrain their utterances, and their utterances were quite mild afterwards—they were apologetic.
Senator Sherman. They were for the Queen?
Mr. Emerson. Yes. And the feeling during all those days was that the Queen and the Queen's government had lost its grip on the situation. During the meeting held in that skating rink I did not see any man with any arms whatever. I saw no sidearms, and they were within a block and a half of the barracks. But they did not dare----
Senator Gray. What did that meeting do other than declare against
certain acts of the Government? Did it declare openly in opposition to the Queen?
Mr. Emerson. So openly that when Mr. Baldwin said, "Let us go by the constitutional methods," they cried out, "No, no." And as I remember it the statement was made, "We have no more use for the Queen," or words to that effect.
Senator Gray. Who made that statement?
Mr. Emerson. I could not tell you.
Senator Gray. Were resolutions passed other than those denouncing certain acts of the Government which the meeting disapproved?
Mr. Emerson. As I understand it the committee was empowered to go forward and act.
Senator Sherman. Follow that. How soon after that meeting closed was it that the troops were landed from the Boston?
Mr. Emerson. My first knowledge of the landing of the troops from the Boston was when I went down the street.
Senator Sherman. The same day?
Mr. Emerson. The same day; oh, yes, sir. It was after that meeting. I went to my home, and my brother and I went to Rev. Mr. Bishop's home. We knew there must be a good deal of feeling around. I said, "How about to-night; are they not going to patrol?" Mr. Bishop said, "The United States marines have been landed, so that there will be quiet observed."
Senator Sherman. Were the marines landed before the close of the meeting?
Mr. Emerson. No.
Senator Sherman. They were not?
Mr. Emerson. Oh, no; an hour or two afterwards.
Senator Gray. Did you see any of the marines there?
Mr. Emerson. I did not.
Senator Gray. Then how did you know they were landed.
Mr. Emerson. I was told by Mr. Bishop.
Senator Sherman. At what hour was the meeting held?
Mr. Emerson. I think it was after 2 o'clock that we met.
Senator Sherman. Were there, so far as you know, any organized armed forces on either side at the time, during the holding of this meeting?
Mr. Emerson. I know of none. I know of no armed forces that were in sight.
Senator Sherman. Did you know or hear of any that were in existence ready to fight during the time the meeting was going on? You say there was a meeting of both sides.
Mr. Emerson. I had no knowledge of any forces that were at that time anywhere in sight, although that night—I will not say that night —I had the feeling that there were men in the city not only by the score, but certainly over a hundred.
Senator Sherman. You say that the day before they made a list of their strength.
Mr. Emerson. Hundreds who would have risen had there been an emergency.
Senator Sherman. But you saw no armed troops in the streets?
Mr. Emerson. No; my brother was ready at any time to take his gun and go.
The Chairman. At the time of the holding of the meeting of these citizens, both at the skating rink and at the palace grounds, the Queen had her army?
S. Doc. 231, pt 6----35
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