558-559

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Reports of Committee on Foreign Relations 1789-1901 Volume 6 pp558-559 300dpi scan (VERY LARGE!)

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Senator Gray. All the people. Was a majority of the people opposing the Queen, and in favor of annexation to the United States? You say, "Oh, no."

Mr. Emerson. Yes.

The Chairman. Suppose it had been left to the vote of the Kanakas?

Mr. Emerson. If it had been left to the vote of those thirteen thousand, I think the natives, seeing their Queen there, would have felt like supporting her.

Senator Gray. What would the majority of those voters have done at the time?

Mr. Emerson. I think the majority would have voted in favor of a continuance of the Queen's Government.

The Chairman. Do you include the Portuguese in that?

Mr. Emerson. No; they are opposed to the Queen and in favor of the Provisional Government.

The Chairman. That is one element. And the Germans?

Mr. Emerson. The Germans, one portion, the intelligent portion— I should say that the vast majority of the Europeans were in favor of a change of the government and annexation to the United States Government, leaving out a few English. A few English prefer English institutions. Leaving out that party—the English minister, Minister Woodhouse, has marriage relations with the late court.

Senator Gray. If the power in that country resided in those who had the right to vote, and that I take for granted—you understand what I mean----

Mr. Emerson. I can say that here were 8,000 native votes

Senator Gray. I am willing to hear you when you shall have answered my question. Understand me first. The political power there under the existing state of things was vested with those 13,000 people who voted?

Mr. Emerson. Under the law.

Senator Gray. Was not that necessarily so?

Mr. Emerson. Yes, just so far as the vote would go.

Senator Gray. Those who were elected to the Legislature were elected by the voting population?

Mr. Emerson. I grant that, so far as the vote would go.

Senator Gray. I ask you whether or not a majority of those 13,000 legal voters was for or against this revolution?

Mr. Emerson. A majority was against the revolution, I have no doubt.

The Chairman. That majority would comprise how many Hawaiian voters, how many native Kanakas?

Mr. Emerson. I think there are about 8,000 native voters.

The Chairman. Would you count them solidly against annexation?

Mr. Emerson. No. Let me make this statement, which I think a fair statement to make right here. The people there are instruments in the hands of these two parties. In the island of Kauai, for example, the native mind is influenced by the stronger mind, and the Queen does not have so much power.

The Chairman. The native is influenced by his employer?

Mr. Emerson. Yes. They do not care so much; they do not feel the interest.

The Chairman. You think there would be a decided majority of what we call the Kanaka element against annexation?

Mr. Emerson. Yes.

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The Chairman. And be in favor of retaining their Queen?

Mr. Emerson. I will not say that now.

The Chairman. And would have voted in favor of retaining the royal government?

Mr. Emerson. Yes.

The Chairman. Now that the royal government has disappeared, how do you think the native voters would cast their votes on the subject of annexation?

Mr. Emerson. I believe they would vote for it, in favor of it.

The Chairman. The Queen having disappeared?

Mr. Emerson. Yes.

The Chairman. Now we come to the Portuguese. They comprise about how many voters?

Mr. Emerson. I can not give you figures. There are some 11,000 Portuguese in all, and there were some 1,500 or 2,000 Portuguese voters.

The Chairman. What would be the prevailing sentiment among the Portuguese as to a maintenance of the monarchy or the establishment of a republican form of government?

Mr. Emerson. It would be very hard to find a single Portuguese who would vote for monarchy.

The Chairman. You think it would be solidly against monarchy?

Mr. Emerson. Yes.

The Chairman. And then, monarchy having disappeared, how about annexation?

Mr. Emerson. In favor of annexation to this country.

The Chairman. Then, of the German, the French, and the English who are there: What would be the sentiment among the Europeans on the subject of maintaining the monarchy or some other form of government?

Mr. Emerson. A vast majority of the Americans, a vast majority of the Germans, and a goodly portion of the English and Scotch

The Chairman. Would be in favor of having some other form of government than monarchy?

Mr. Emerson. Yes.

The Chairman. And do you include in your opinion annexation?

Mr. Emerson. Yes; closer relations to this country.

The Chairman. Then it would be that the opponents of a change in government would consist of a majority of the Kanakas and a minority of these other nationalities?

Mr. Emerson. Yes; that is, those who support the monarchy.

The Chairman. But the Queen out of the way, monarchy destroyed, and it being impossible to restore it, your opinion would be, if I understand it correctly, that a majority of all together, the Kanakas, the European white people, the Americans, and the Portuguese, would be in favor of annexation to the United States rather than to any other country?

Mr. Emerson. I believe the vast majority would be. But let me say this—the adventurers out there would be in favor of the establishment of a republic.

The Chairman. An independent republic.

Mr. Emerson. Yes. Mr. Wilcox, who is an adventurer out there, would operate in that direction.

The Chairman. You mean in the direction of an independent republic?

Mr. Emerson. Yes; where they would have a chance to get office,


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