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Reports of Committee on Foreign Relations 1789-1901 Volume 6 pp642-643 300dpi scan (VERY LARGE!)

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comfortably and prosperously upon the native capacity of the soil to produce articles of human food?

Mr. Alexander. I think probably five times the present population. There are some districts nearly uninhabited.

The Chairman. And still leave a fair margin for exportation?

Mr. Alexander. Yes.

The Chairman. As exchange to get goods of other countries there?

Mr. Alexander. Yes; wherever we go we find abandoned taro patches and abandoned water courses overgrown with forests, at the same time showing that there was a dense population there hundreds of years ago.

The Chairman. I believe that is all I care to ask you about the general character of that country. I wish now to come to the political side.

Senator Frye. If you will allow me, right there, I want to ask a question. I have in my hand a history of the Hawaiian Islands, written for educational purposes in the islands, a book of 340 pages. Are you the author of this book?

Mr. Alexander. Yes, I am the author.

Senator Frye. Written at the request of the board of education?

Mr. Alexander. Yes.

Senator Frye. And is it to be used in the schools?

Mr. Alexander. It is used in the schools.

Senator Frye. Are you the auther of any other book there—geography?

Mr. Alexander. I was the author of a grammar of the Hawaiian language and of a good many pamphlets and separate papers.

Senator Frye. I see here that you purpose writing certain other books. Have you written any of them?

Mr. Alexander. I have not completed any of them.

Senator Frye. You had a good many conversations with Mr. Blount, did you not?

Mr. Alexander. I did.

Senator Frye. They were not taken down by a stenographer at the time?

Mr. Alexander. No ; they were informal.

Senator Frye. But you gave Mr. Blount a prepared, a written paper of the history of the incompleted annexation treaty of 1854, a history of the general causes that led to the revolution—a political history of Kalakaua's reign until 1888?

Mr. Alexander. Yes; and those have been printed.

Senator Frye. Have you read them since they have been printed?

Mr. Alexander. Yes.

Senator Frye. They are printed correctly, are they?

Mr. Alexander. Yes.

Senator Frye. Did you also prepare a constitutional history of that country since the beginning of the century?

Mr. Alexander. Yes. That has not been published yet.

Senator Frye. Did you give that to Mr. Blount?

Mr. Alexander. I gave him a copy.

Senator Frye. Has that been printed?

Mr. Alexander. No.

Senator Frye. Have you a copy of that constitutional history?

Mr. Alexander. I have the original draft.

Senator Frye. And will you furnish the committee that history?

Mr. Alexander. I will.


The Chairman. It will not be necessary for you to repeat anything that you have stated in that history to Mr. Blount. You have furnished me heretofore a paper that I must acknowledge I have not read. It is a continuation of the sketch of recent Hawaiian politics, and treats of various things. I will read that in your hearing, and see if you are prepared to depose to it as being correct.

[The preceding narrative is published In Col. Blount's report, part IV, pp.



"This preceding narrative ended with the revolution of 1887, which was expected to put an end to personal rule in the Hawaiian Islands by making the ministry responsible only to the people through the legislature, by taking the power of appointing the Upper House out of the hands of the Sovereign, and by making officeholders ineligible to the legislature.

"The remaining three and a half years of Kalakaua's reign teemed with intrigues and conspiracies to restore autocratic rule.

"The reform party, as has been stated, gained an overwhelming majority of seats in the legislature of 1887, and had full control of the government until the legislative session of 1890.

"During the session of 1887 a contest arose between the King and the legislature in regard to the veto power, which at one time threatened the public peace. The question whether by the terms of the new constitution the King could exercise a personal vote against the advice of his ministers or not was finally decided by the supreme court in favor of the Crown, Judge Dole dissenting."

He is the present president?

Mr. Alexander. Yes.

The Chairman. "During the following session of 1888 the King vetoed a number of bills which were all passed over his veto, by a two-thirds vote, with the exception of a bill to encourage coflee planting.


"The King's sister, the then Princess Llliuokalani, on her return from England, had charged her brother with cowardice for signing the constitution of 1887, and was known to be in favor of the old despotic system of government."

That was the constitution under which Liliuokalani took her present attitude, or recent attitude as Queen of Hawaii?

Mr. Alexander. Yes.

The Chairman. "Two Hawaiian youths, R. W. Wilcox and Robert Boyd, whom Moreno had placed in military schools of Italy, as before stated, had been recalled towards the end of 1887. They had been led to expect high positions from the Gibson government, and their disappointment was extreme. Hence they were easily induced to lead a conspiracy which had for its object the abrogation of the constitution of 1887, and the restortation of the old regime. They endeavored to form a secret league, and held public meetings to inflame the native mind, but without much success. It is said that the royal guards were won over, and that the three chief conspirators, R. W. "Wilcox. C. B. Wilson, and Sam Nowlien, demanded the King's abdication in favor of Liliuokalani. Several members of their league, however, turned informers,

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