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Reports of Committee on Foreign Relations 1789-1901 Volume 6 pp662-663 300dpi scan (VERY LARGE!)

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of her purpose, withdrawal of the new constitution, was too late to check this?

Mr. Alexander. I was at the first mass meeting and heard the first two speeches, and then went to the other. I think it was Mr. Young who spoke to the meeting. He said, "Can we trust her?" and the cry was "No," all over the hall. It was the large skating rink where the meeting was held.

Senator Gray. Are the proceedings and speeches of that meeting published in the papers?

Mr. Alexander. Yes; you have it in a pamphlet.

Senator Gray. In some document we have in print here there are extracts, what purport to be extracts from a paper in Honolulu, giving the proceedings of that meeting. Have you seen them?

Mr. Alexander. I have seen them; I presume they are correct.

Senator Butler. Is it your opinion that the lives and property of American citizens would have been put in jeopardy in the then state of feeling in Honolulu but for the United States marines?

Mr. Alexander. I think there were reasons to apprehend that at the time.

Senator Butler. You say there were reasons to apprehend it?

Mr. Alexander. At the time, yes. Looking back on it now, I think probably the white people would have been strong enough to have protected themselves. But there was sufficient reason at the time.

The Chairman. Was the apprehension based upon the fact that mobs in favor of the Crown might rise in hostile opposition to the opposing element, or was it based upon the apprehension that the transitory condition of the Government would let the evil characters loose upon the community—characters disposed to burn and mob?

Mr. Alexander. Rather the latter. The city was paralyzed. There was an interregnum in the law, in the authority on the part of the existing Government, and the new Government had not become organized, and there were warnings about incendiarism. I do not exactly like to use names.

The Chairman. Do you mean of individuals?

Mr. Alexander. Yes. A white lady has told me that a half-white lady came to her and told her that natives were putting kerosene in bottles, and getting cloth, and explained how they would use it to set houses on fire by wrapping it around the posts, etc.

Senator Gray. Did not the danger or apprehension of danger of which you speak originate in the fact that the revolutionary project had already been set on foot by this white element which afterward established a Provisional Government? I do not mean that they were dangerous characters, for I understand you perfectly that they were the better class; but that their activity and proclaimed intentions brought about the condition of things which made the danger.

Mr. Alexander. I suppose if the community had quietly submitted on Saturday the danger would not have existed.

Senator Gray. Exactly. That made the danger, and that making the danger you think was the reason for the presence of the United States troops?

The Chairman. When the resistance became a fact, then, I understand you to say, the apprehensions of danger were not from mobs rising amongst the opposing political elements of the native people or others, but from the paralysis of authority there, which encouraged the licentious classes, the criminal classes, to exploit their operations against private property and against human life?

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Mr. Alexander. Well, the race hatred. Yes, I take it that way. Race hatred might have led to the commission of isolated outrages. I did not expect any organized violence from the natives. Judge Hartwell expressed fear, and gentlemen like him might have told Minister Stevens. I never had the fear of natives that others did; I thought I knew them better.

The Chairman. Let me ask you of the general characteristics of the people of Hawaii. Are they given to forming mobs?

Mr. Alexander. Not generally. I have seen one great mob, in 1874.

The Chairman. Was that a political occasion?

Mr. Alexander. Yes; when Kalakaua was elected they mobbed the court house, where the legislature was assembled, broke in and clubbed the legislature and commenced to sack the building. The ministry had warning of danger taking place, but they made light of the danger, and when the crisis came the native police were of no use.

The Chairman. Was that mob led by white people?

Mr. Alexander. No; by the natives.

The Chairman. It was a mob composed of Queen Emma's adherents?

Mr. Alexander. Yes. They were careful not to attack the white people, except in one case, because there were two American and one English warship in the harbor. They considered that it was amongst themselves. Capt. Belknap had been informed about the danger, and so was the American minister, and they were ready. After a good deal of vacillation the ministry sent the American minister a note. Marines from the two American men-of war joined by a body of marines from the English man-of-war, perhaps 200 or more, marched up and quelled the mob very quickly. They held the city for a week.

The Chairman. Did these soldiers have any conflicts with the population?

Mr. Alexander. They made many arrests.

The Chairman. There was no violence used by the troops?

Mr. Alexander. No. The rioters were struck with fear; they ran out of the court-house like rats out of a burning building.

The Chairman. That riot was between the adherents of Queen Emma and those of Kalakaua?

Mr. Alexander. Yes.

The Chairman. And one in which the white people had no preference?

Mr. Alexander. It was considered that they would prefer Kalakaua.

The Chairman. The Legislature was in session, you say?

Mr. Alexander. The Legislature had just elected Kalakaua.

The Chairman. And was still in session?

Mr. Alexander. Yes.

The Chairman. And they were attacked by this mob of natives?

Mr. Alexander. Yes.

The Chairman. And the mob was repressed after some killings had taken place, I suppose?

Mr. Alexander. Nobody was killed; they were pretty severely clubbed over the head, and one died afterward.

The Chairman. And that was suppressed soon afterward by marines from two American ships and one British ship?

Mr. Alexander. Yes.

The Chairman. And the troops held possession of the city for a week?

Mr. Alexander. Yes.

The Chairman. And then went back to their vessels?


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