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protect life and property. He remarked to the captain that he need not apprehend any danger of being fired upon, because nothing of the kind had ever been done under any circumstances. After a few minutes Capt. Wiltse turned to him and said, "I have decided to land the troops already, and I will land them at 4 o'clock; they are all ready to land, and here is an order I have written to the commanding officer, Lieut-Commander Swinburn." The order was taken almost bodily from the confidential letter to Captain Wiltse.
Then one of the officers present made the remark, "Captain, in case there is a change in the situation and we should be attacked by any one of the contending parties how far are these orders to extend; what shall we do under such circumstances?" Capt. Wiltse then supplemented his written order by the verbal statement, "The situation is such that it will require a great deal of judgment on the part of you officers who are going on shore; you have been here a number of months, and know all the Americans and their property; that is what I want to protect, and I want you to be careful and remain as neutral as you can." Those were the oral instructigns. Mr. Stevens then made the remark, "I am very glad you are going to land them, because I think it is absolutely necessary." Mr. Stevens then left the vessel and returned to the shore.
The Chairman. How far from the coast was the Boston at that time?
Mr. Young. About a half mile. We were anchored, moored, at least, in what is known as the Naval row in the harbor.
The Chairman. Did you change the position of the ship?
Mr. Young. No, not at all: she remained in the same position all the time.
The Chairman. Were the guns trained on the city in any way?
Mr. Young. No.
The Chairman. When you came out how many boats did it require to bring your men, the whole detachment?
Mr. Young. We could have brought them in fewer boats; but we divided them in platoons, and each platoon took a boat.
The Chairman. How many boats did it take?
Mr. Young. Four companies making 8 platoons, and each platoon had a boat.
The Chairman. Were they landed in a body?
Mr. Young. Yes, they formed immediately on getting on shore with the artillery in the rear.
The Chairman. Who was in command?
Mr. Young. Lieut. Commander Swinburn, the executive officer of the ship.
The Chairman. Where was the company ordered to go?
Mr Young. We had no definite point at all. We landed at Brewer's wharf, and marched up to the corner of Fort and Merchant streets, where the consul general's office was, and there left a marine company, which was to protect the American legation and consulate. The rest of the battalion turned and marched down King street in front of the palace, and as we passed the palace the Queen was standing on the balcony, when we gave her the royal salute by drooping the colors and four ruffles on the drums. We passed the palace 250 yards, and there waited until we could find some place to go into camp. We made an effort at first to get the old armory near the landing, so as to be near our base of supplies and throw out pickets in case of emergency. But we failed to get that, and then tried to get the opera house. They were the only two buildings near the center of the town, and not being able
to get them we went to the yard of a white man named Atherton, and there we bivouacked under the trees in the rain until 9.30 p.m, when the aid to Capt. Wiltse reported they had secured a little hall in the rear of the opera house, known as Arion Hall, which is used as a Mormon temple now, I believe. We marched there and went into camp.
Senator Gray. Inside the building?
Mr. Young. Inside the building; yes. And the yard was turned over to us also. I was detailed as officer of the day, and stationed my pickets and guards around inside the inclosure and not out. I then patroled myself in front the opera house, where I could get a view of the vicinity of the fortified police station and center of the city along King street and the cross street cutting in at Palace Place, also the vicinity of the Government barracks across the Palace Square, the approaches to the armory occupied by the revolutionary forces, and the grounds surrounding the Government buildings. I sent out men to get all the information that I could. I know that when we marched through town I never saw a policeman; but when I went outside to get men to obtain information for me, I was informed that the police to the number of about 80 were fortified in the station house, and 60 troops were in the barracks, all under arms, and afraid to come out.
The Chairman. The Queen's troops?
Mr. Young. The Queen's troops. And there was nobody out on the streets to protect any one, to prevent incendiarism and pilfering. I had a full view down King street and of the approaches to this police station; also to the heart of the town down the other street, which puts in there from Fort street.
Senator Butler. Did you carry your artillery with you?
Mr. Young. It was all in the park. From there I had a view down to the police station; and across here [indicating on diagram] I could see. Here [indicating] is the armory; that [indicating] is where the barracks are, where the Government troops were; they were stationed principally in the palace grounds. I heard them drilling all night long, giving orders. I could see across this square [indicating], and across this place here [indicating]. I could control down there [indicating]. There were 2 alarms during the night, fire alarms of an incendiary nature, and I called out the guards ready for action till I got information they were not needed. I sent off a courier to find out what this fire was, and finding it was not American property I made no further move, but returned the guard to their quarters.
The Chairman. How far away from the camp were those fires?
Mr. Young. One on Emma square, which is about two squares off; the other on Beretania street, about a mile off. I have no doubt that the drawing up of the guard inspired confidence among the people. The Government troops were 80 and 60, and those were all the troops they ever had at any time. Mr. Wilson showed me a statement where he claimed that he had 800 men. I told him that I had been informed by participants, and I had verified their statements, that he had only 80 and 60, and he laughed and told me of course he had not that number; but he had appointed a number of men around town as spies, who gave information, and he knew a lot of Kanakas he could call in to make up the number. He never had but 80 and 60 under his command.
Senator Frye Of the Queen's guard and police?
Mr. Young. Queen's guard and police. At the same time there were 175 men under arms of the volunteer force. They were quartered in the appointed rendezvous on Emma street and at the old armory, and 50 more down at the other rendezvous on Nuuana avenue.
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