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company of 36 men was withdrawn, and that, with the casualties that occurred, left the force on shore about 90 men; I think less than that.

Senator Gray. What do you mean by casualties?

Mr. Swinburne. Some men sent on board ship for punishment, and quite a number sent onboard sick. Somewhere in the neighborhood of 80 to 90 men left, including the drum corps and color guard.

The Chairman. At what time did Admiral Skerrett come into the harbor?

Mr. Swinburne. I forget the date of his arrival; but it was after the flag was hoisted.

The Chairman. On what ship did he come?

Mr. Swinburne. The Mohican.

The Chairman. Is that his flagship?

Mr. Swinburne. Yes.

The Chairman. What was Admiral Skerrett's command?

Mr. Swinburne. The Pacific Station.

The Chairman. That included Hawaii?

Mr. Swinburne. That included Hawaii; yes.

The Chairman. How long did Capt. Wiltse remain on the Boston after Admiral Skerrett's arrival?

Mr. Swinburne. My impression is that he remained until about the 5th of March, when he was relieved by Capt. B. F. Day.

The Chairman. Did he leave on account of sickness?

Mr. Swinburne. He left because of the termination of his cruise. He was there a little longer than the termination of his cruise. Two years is now the ordinary term of a captain at sea; that had expired in February, and in the ordinary course of routine Capt. Day was sent out to relieve him.

The Chairman. How long did Capt. Wiltse live after that?

Mr. Swinburne. I have forgotten the date of his death—probably six weeks or two months.

The Chairman. After he arrived in the United States?

Mr. Swinburne. After he arrived in the United States. He had been apparently in good health; but he had one stroke of apoplexy while he was attached to the ship. I was not surprised.

The Chairman. Are those the orders under which you left the ship with that detachment (exhibiting paper)?

Mr. Swinburne. Yes.

The Chairman. They are as follows:

U. S. S. Boston, Second-rate,
Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, January 16,1893.
Lieut. Commander W. T. Swinburne,
U. S. Navy, Executive Officer U.S.S. Boston:
Sir: You will take command of the battalion and land in Honolulu for the purpose of protecting our legation, consulate, and the lives and property of American citizens, and to assist in preserving public order.
Great prudence must be exercised by both officers and men, and no action taken that is not fully warranted by the condition of affairs and by the conduct of those who may be inimical to the treaty rights of American citizens.
You will inform me at the earliest practicable moment of any change in the situation.
Very respectfully,
G. C. Wiltse,
Captain, U. S. Navy, Commanding U.S.S. Boston.

What time of day were these orders delivered to you?

Mr. Swinburne. About half past 4 on the afternoon of the 16th.

The Chairman. When you received these orders did you receive any personal or private instructions from Capt. Wiltse in addition?

Mr. Swinburne. None at all, except what I have stated in regard to where we were to go.

The Chairman. Did you at that time know of the formation of a provisional government in Hawaii?

Mr. Swinburne. No; not at all. In fact I knew nothing about that until Mr. Carter spoke of it on Tuesday afternoon.

The Chairman. That was the first knowledge you had?

Mr. Swinburne. That was the first knowledge I had.

The Chairman. So that, in landing with those troops you were not landed for the purpose of protecting the Provisional Government.

Mr. Swinburne. Not the slightest.

The Chairman. Or inaugurating a provisional government?

Mr. Swinburne. Not at all.

The Chairman. You were not certain that you were to do anything more than to protect the----

Mr. Swinburne. Protect American property and the lives of citizens— particularly the property. There had been always a feeling during the time we were there that we were there to look out, in the event of any domestic disturbance in the islands, that no harm came to the Americans or their property in any way.

The Chairman. You are not certain whether that order to assist in preserving public order related to the Queen's Government or any other government?

Mr. Swinburne. I supposed it to mean the Queen's Government; that was my interpretation. There was no other government when I landed.

The Chairman. So that, if the Queen had addressed to you a request to preserve the public order, or if you had found that the public order was being disturbed by opposition to her, you would have felt required to respond?

Mr. Swinburne. That request would have come through the minister to me, merely to preserve order. I did not know that I was there to fight her battles any more than anybody else's. I was there to preserve order; protect the peaceful rights of citizens in the town. I should have been ready if called upon to lend a hand.

Senator Gray. You were going to prevent fighting?

Mr. Swinburne. I was going to prevent any fighting that endangered peaceable American citizens in the town.

Senator Gray. Did Capt. Wiltse say anything to you, or in your presence say anything about preventing any fighting in the town, or not allowing any fighting in the town?

Mr. Swinburne. No; not at all.

Senator Gray. Never did?

Mr. Swinburne. No.

Senator Gray. That if they wanted to fight they would have to go outside?

Mr. Swinburne. The order said, I thought, no more than to see that peaceable citizens were not interfered with.

Senator Gray. Did Capt. Wiltse say that if there was to be any fighting it should be out of town?

Mr. Swinburne. No; he said nothing to me about fighting at all. We had no discussion of the orders.


Senator Gray. Did he say it in you presence?

Mr. Swinburne. I never heard it.

The Chairman. Your construction of the fighting order was to see that peaceful citizens were not interfered with?

Mr. Swinburne. Yes.

The Chairman. By anybody?

Mr. Swinburne. By anybody.

Senator Frye. I understand that under the rules and regulations of the U. S. Navy, naval officers in foreign ports are required to protect the lives and property of American citizens. Now, do you not understand that, so far as this order related to the preservation of order, that you were to preserve order so as to render safe the lives and property of American citizens?

Mr. Swinburne. Precisely.

Senator Frye. You would not have felt called upon to stop it if the Queen's troops had fired into the Provisional troops.

Mr. Swinburne. Oh, no.

Senator Frye. Your idea was that the order was for you to protect the lives and property of American citizens?

Mr. Swinburne. Yes. The evening we landed it was reported, and the next morning Mr. Draper said the Chinese consul came to him at the consulate after the consul general had left and reported that his people were very much disturbed, and he did not know what was going to happen, and he wanted to know from Mr. Draper what they were to do. Mr. Draper said: "If your people behave themselves, go to their houses, and keep out of trouble I will see that they are protected." So that he notified me of that the next morning, and I said, "Certainly; in such a case as that there is no reason why we should not protect any man's life, when he is simply behaving himself and attending to his own business." That was the only question that ever came up. My idea was that I was to look out for American property. Of course, there was some American property there then in danger, and I was going to see that that property and the lives of the owners were looked out for.

The Chairman. By property do you mean goods?

Mr. Swinburne. Goods; yes, and houses. "What I feared was incendiary firing of houses, and that sort of thing, by an irresponsible mob.

The Chairman. Are those the orders under which you took possession of the Government Building [exhibiting paper]?

Mr. Swinburne. Yes. They are laconic enough. The orders are as follows:

"U.S.S. Boston, Second-rate,
"Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, February 1, 1893.
"Lieut.-Commander W. T. Swinburne,
"Commanding Battalion, U.S.S. Boston.
"Sir: You will take possession of the Government Building, and the American flag will be hoisted over it at 9 a.m.
"Very respectfully,
"G. C. Wiltse,
"Captain, U.S. Navy, Commanding U.S.S. Boston."

The Chairman. These are the orders under which you abandoned the island and went back to the ship? [Exhibiting paper.]

Mr. Swinburne. Yes; the orders detaching me from the command, and ordering me to return to the ship.


The orders are as follows:

"U.S.S. Boston, Second Rate,
"Honolulu, H. I., March 20, 1893.
"Sir: In accordance with the instructions of Rear-Admiral J. S. Skerrett, U.S. Navy, commanding U.S. Naval Force, Pacific Station, you will, at 5:30 p.m. to-day, withdraw from shore one company of thirty-six men, with their officers, and repair on board the Boston and resume accustomed duties."
One company, with music, colors, and proper proportion of officers, will be left at 'Camp Boston,' and you will turn over the command of the same to Lieutenant Charles Laird, U. S. Navy, who will continue the duties and routine as heretofore.
"Very respectfully,
"B. F. Day,
"Captain U.S. Navy, Commanding U.S.S. Boston.
"Lieut. Comdr. Wm. T. Swinburne,
"U.S. Navy"

WASHINGTON, D. C, Friday, January 19, 1894.


The Chairman. Did you have any instructions in addition to or differing from the orders under which you started from the ship?

Mr. Swinburne. None at all.

The Chairman. Did you understand when you left the ship that you were going ashore for the purpose of sustaining the Provisional Government then in process of organization or in expectation of organization, or for the purpose of sustaining any government?

Mr. Swinburne. Not at all. I had never heard of the Provisional Government. I did not know, even, that there was such a movement on foot. I knew there was a movement of some kind on foot on the part of the citizens, and my idea was that it was to get some absolute assurances from the Queen that they could depend upon in the future.

The Chairman. Your idea was that the movement was to get some assurances from the Queen?

Mr. Swinburne. Yes. I did not expect it would ever come to the point of dethroning her. You will notice in my testimony given before that I had called Mr. Carter's attention to that part of my orders which referred to preserving order in the town. Before Mr. Carter had asked me if he could see my orders, when he told me that certain men were going to take the Government building, in calling attention to that part of my orders, I purposely exaggerated my orders, lest he should get an idea that as these men were Americans I would give them support, since I was there to protect American interests. I called his attention to the clause which directed me to assist in preserving order. I said, "My understanding of that is that l am to assist the Queen's Government in preserving order." Of course, a request from the Queen to assist in preserving order would have to come through the minister, but I thought it was proper to exaggerate that, so that he would go


away with a complete understanding of how I stood with regard to the matter. That was the purpose of that statement.

The Chairman. Had you any purpose, or did you suspect any purpose on the part of any person concerned in this movement, either the United States minister, the United States consul, Capt. Wiltse, or any other official to establish a provisional government, or to dethrone the Queen?

Mr. Swinburne. Not at all.

The Chairman. You were not aware of any such purpose existing at all?

Mr. Swinburne. No.

The Chairman. At the time the troops disembarked—went on shore—do you know whether Mr. Stevens was on board the ship?

Mr. Swinburne. My impression is that he had gone on shore. I am not certain of that; but I am pretty sure.

The Chairman. When did you next see Mr. Stevens after you saw him on board the ship?

Mr. Swinburne. I do not remember to have seen him again until the day of his daughter's funeral, which must have been about four weeks from the date of our landing, though I can't be certain. It was not until the day of his daughter's funeral; I can not recall when that was, but it was while we were on shore.

The Chairman. Did Mr. Stevens interfere in any way with the management of the troops on shore?

Mr. Swinburne. Not at all.

The Chairman. Did he give any directions as to what they should or should not do?

Mr. Swinburne. All the directions that came to me were given to me by the captain.

The Chairman. I believe you have already stated what you know about the transaction, commencing with the time you landed. That is in your deposition?

Mr. Swinburne. Yes.

The Chairman. And up to the time you left----

Mr. Swinburne. Left Arion Hall.

The Chairman. And went down to Camp Boston?

Mr. Swinburne. Yes.

The Chairman. How long did you remain in Camp Boston?

Mr. Swinburne. A portion of the troops was there until the 1st of April—up to the time the flag was hauled down. I was detached on the 20th of March.

The Chairman. I want to call your attention to some remarks made by Mr. Willis in his reports or letters. In his letter of December 20, 1893, to Mr. Gresham, Mr. Willis says:

"The delay in making any announcement of your policy was, as you will understand, because of the direct verbal and written instructions under which I have been acting. Under those instructions my first duty was to guard the life and safety of those who had by the act of our own minister been placed in a position where there was an apparant antagonism between them and our Government. As I understood from the President and from you, the sole connection with our Government had with the settlement of the Hawaiian question was the undoing of what, from an international standpoint, was considered by the President to have been a wrong to a feeble, defenseless, and friendly power. In undoing this wrong I was, however, instructed first of all to see that proper safeguards were thrown around those who had been
probably misled as to the position of our Government and the wishes of our people."

I understand that the protection Mr. Willis speaks of here has reference to those persons who were of the party of the Queen. Now, I wish to ask you whether, while you stayed upon that island, you saw or was informed of any demonstration whatever of a hostile character toward the person of the Queen or any of her supporters?

Mr. Swinburne. Not that I ever heard of, any further than the dethronement of the Queen—no attempt of a personal nature against the Queen or her followers.

The Chairman. Of course, I am speaking of their personal safety and protection.

Mr. Swinburne. Not at all; they had the same protection that any other person had.

Senator Frye. Did they not have more; did not the Provisional Government furnish the Queen with half her guard?

Mr. Swinburne. Yes.

Senator Frye. And did they not pay off the guard to the first of the month, when they were discharged?

Mr. Swinburne. Yes; she had more protection than anyone else during the revolution. I never heard of a revolution carried on in that style.

The Chairman. Here is a statement in Mr. Willis's letter to the effect that the Japanese and English legations were guarded by the marines of their respective vessels, "and no American soldier has been stationed here and none will be." Do you recollect whether the Japanese and English legations were guarded during the time you were there?

Mr. Swinburne. Not at all. The Japanese asked permission to land a guard at the legation, and the Provisional Government, while they did not refuse, informed the minister that they were perfectly able to give them all necessary protection; and it was currently reported that the Provisional Government had given the Japanese minister permission to have a guard on shore if he wished it, but none were landed.

The Chairman. This permission of which Mr. Willis speaks must have occurred after you went back to the ship?

Mr. Swinburne. Yes; no foreign troops were ashore at all except our own.

The Chairman. At the time you withdrew and went on board that ship, will you say that the people of Honolulu were in a state of quietude, or in an agitated and insurrectionary state?

Mr. Swinburne. They were perfectly quiet; all the agitation was the conspiring of a few professional politicians belonging to the Queen's party. We could see that going on all the time.

Senator Gray. Were there any professional politicians belonging to the other party?

Mr. Swinburne. When I used that expression I referred to two or three men who never seemed to have any other means of existence except as a part of the Queen's party. The Queen being out of power, they had no visible means of support.

The Chairman. I want to read you some more extracts from Mr. Willis's letter, the one I quoted from a moment ago, to see whether you can concur in the opinions he has expressed and indorse the facts which he has brought to the attention of the Secretary of State.

Senator Gray. I will ask whether Lieut. Swinburne was in Honolulu at any time during the time that Mr Willis was on shore?

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