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editors of the paper stated that by actual count there were a little less than 1,100. He gave the actual numbers at the time.
Senator Gray. How far were those meetings apart?
Mr. Oleson. A little less than a quarter of a mile.
Senator Gray. Short distance enough to allow a shifting back and forth?
Mr. Oleson. Yes; there were very few went away from the meeting in the armory; but there were others outside, representing the indifferent class, to see how the thing was going. They would range themselves at the public square meeting, as on other similar occasions, on the sidewalk toward the palace, when the meeting was on the other side of the railroad track.
Senator Gray. You were at both meetings?
Mr. Oleson. Yes.
The Chairman. You spoke of having a feeling of friendship for the Hawaiian people?
Mr. Oleson. Yes.
The Chairman. And the Hawaiian character?
Mr. Oleson. Yes.
The Chairman. Will you state whether that is a common feeling amongst the white men of Hawaii?
Mr. Oleson. That is a very difficult question to answer. There are two classes of white men in the country: it is doubtful which class is the more numerous. The more recent class in the country have a low estimate of the native character; but the older residents of the country have always been friendly, and have had an attraction toward the Hawaiians, and have always done a great deal for them.
The Chairman. That is the body of the people which you call missionaries?
Mr. Oleson. Yes; the older residents, who have known Hawaiians outside of Honolulu—known them under circumstances different from those which have come up since 1880.
The Chairman. In the Hawaiian Islands, who are classed as missionaries?
Mr. Oleson. Any man who is in favor of good order and against pernicious legislation is a missionary.
The Chairman. And so classed?
Mr. Oleson. Yes. And it is no matter whether he is of correct life or not.
Senator Gray. Because the missionary element leads that movement?
Mr. Oleson. I do not know, except that it comes about incidentally.
Senator Gray. Is it not a fact that the descendants of those missionaries, being descendants of our own race and blood, and living there and having an interest in the islands, are supposed to have an interest that does not belong to the later comers, to those more transient?
Mr. Oleson. In the native race, you mean?
Senator Gray. Yes.
Mr. Oleson. Yes?
The Chairman. The native race have a respect for the real missionary?
Mr. Oleson. Yes. There is hardly a man, an old resident, who has been in public life, who has any prominence in this movement, who has not at one time or another represented an almost entirely native constituency in the legislature.
The Chairman. There seems to be a progress made in all educational development, Christian development, etc. Is that the work of the class called missionaries?
Mr. Oleson. I think it comes from the fact of their residence among the missionaries; yes.
The Chairman. And that gives impulse to all these movements to enlightenment and civilization in Hawaii?
Mr. Oleson. Yes. The conditions have changed now. In earlier times, when the white population was less in number than now, the affiliations were greater between the Hawaiians and the whites, because they were thrown among each other in matters of residence— they were out in the country nearer together. The plantation system has broken that up; and the political situation—I speak of the revolution— has also brought about that change.
The Chairman. Is the progress of education in Hawaii due to the efforts of this party called the missionaries—the old missionaries there?
Mr. Oleson. I should say that all the intelligent and law-loving members of the community (with possible exceptions which can be explained) are in this movement. Those exceptions are men who are more or less connected with the embassies, or who are agitators of anti- American ideas, who, being adventurers in that country, have but little or no property interests—are interested in the schemes for smuggling opium, or laws which are intended for their personal interests. They use the natives, but they have no real regard for them. I can put in, use and abuse. I know about the attitude of this class who are at the head of the Government in relation to the schools.
The Chairman. Do you mean the Provisional Government?
Mr. Oleson. Yes; men who are influential in it. I know of their generosity in the way of support of Hawaiians in the schools. I have had connection not only with the two schools I mentioned, but others; and I know the help granted by these men has been enormous. They have supported individuals in the schools, and have done it because of aloha for the natives.
The Chairman. Has there been a general dissemination of knowledge of English amongst the Hawaiians in the elementary studies?
Mr. Oleson. Yes. But a great many of them are able to read in an English book who can not talk English, except indifferently.
The Chairman. My question had reference to the extent.
Mr. Oleson. It is extensive in the sense that the Hawaiians can read and write as perhaps no other people can according to population.
The Chairman. Since you have been living in Hawaii, have you seen any marked progress in morality or personal respectability amongst what you call the Hawaiians, the native Kanakas?
Mr. Oleson. I think that in the city of Honolulu there is much more immorality than there is out in the country. I shall have to associate my observation in Honolulu with that of an observer in Hilo. In the country, the commingling of the races and the immoralities which are the bane of Hawaiian social life are not so excessive and flagrant as in the city of Honolulu. But there are causes for that, of course.
The Chairman. But as a general rule or result, has the influence, the efforts of the missionary party (I will call them), in Hawaii been beneficial or otherwise to the people?
Mr. Oleson. Beneficial to the people. I do not think there has been
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