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Reports of Committee on Foreign Relations 1789-1901 Volume 6 pp904-905 300dpi scan (VERY LARGE!)

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The Chairman. Proceeding from this period when you say there was an interregnum to the time when you ordered the American flag to be hoisted in Hawaii, I will ask you what was the condition of the people as to order and quietude and the conduct of their ordinary vocations?

Mr. Stevens. You mean between the time of the recognition of the Provisional Government and the raising of the flag?

The Chairman. Yes.

Mr. Stevens. I will say that the people were generally at their avocations, except that the citizens had constituted themselves soldiers— the men from stores, the banks, and the workshops, responsible men— were constituted the military force for the time being.

The Chairman. To what extent had this volunteer military organization increased?

Mr. Stevens. Volunteer and otherwise I could not tell precisely; but I should say all the way from 400 to 600 men.

The Chairman. Armed men?

Mr. Stevens. Men they could place arms with. They were white men accustomed to the use of muskets. But the men actually on military duty probably would not be half that number.

The Chairman. Were the men organized for the purpose of repressing mobs and incendiarism, or organized and armed for the purpose of supporting the Provisional Government?

Mr. Stevens. The public order.

The Chairman. I want to ask you whether they were organized for the purpose of preserving public order, or for the purpose of supporting the Provisional Government?

Mr. Stevens. They regarded the Provisional Government as the instrument through which they would preserve order.

The Chairman. They were considered troops of the Provisional Government?

Mr. Stevens. They were supporters of the Provisional Government.

The Chairman. Were they under the control of the Provisional Government?

Mr. Stevens. Yes. Those volunteers would never be called upon except in an emergency. They had a military force which was disciplined, and they had this force from the workshops.

The Chairman. What was the number of the disciplined force?

Mr. Stevens. I could not speak with accuracy at this moment.

The Chairman. What is your opinion?

Mr. Stevens. I should say 150 men—possibly 200.

The Chairman. Were they organized in military companies?

Mr. Stevens. Military companies.

The Chairman. Under the command of Col. Soper?

Mr. Stevens. Under Col. Soper, I think.

The Chairman. Were there captains of companies?

Mr. Stevens. I do not know Capt. Ziegler; but I think he was the captain of the German company at the Government house.

The Chairman. Were there other captains?

Mr. Stevens. Yes. I think there was another captain, Fisher, from one of the banks, who was the captain at the barracks; the third company, Capt. Goud.

The Chairman. In that period which you call the interregnum, was there any outbreak?

Mr. Stevens. There was no outbreak; they feared an outbreak.

The Chairman. Was there any demonstration to show that an outbreak was contemplated?


Mr. Stevens. I think their fears came from private information. I think there was no external signs of it. Of course the authorities put themselves as much in touch with the facts as they possibly could, and they sometimes may have been alarmed unduly, as men would be in such circumstances.

The Chairman. Did you believe that there was a general public apprehension in that time, covering the period that I have just referred to, of any armed demonstration against the Provisional Government, or any incendiarism, or any mob violence?

Mr. Stevens. Yes; very strong; so strong they got information that they barricaded the Government building and got ready for anything. It is very likely half the time that the alarms were bogus?

The Chairman. During this period of time where was the Queen?

Mr. Stevens. The Queen was in her Washington house. That was the house left to her by her husband, and by the husband's mother left to him. It is the Washington house; well-known place, close to the tpalace.

The Chairman. Did the Queen have any guards about her?

Mr. Stevens. As nearly as I remember the Provisional Government allowed her a guard.

The Chairman. Of how many? What was your information on that subject?

Mr. Stevens. I think 12.

The Chairman. Armed men?

Mr. Stevens. I presume so; I never went to see.

The Chairman. Were the troops taken from the organization under the authority of the Provisional Government?

Mr. Stevens. As nearly, as I remember at first they allowed her 12 of her own guards. But, of course, the Government kept an eye on them, and subsequently they were changed to men of the Provisional Government.

The Chairman. Were they changed at the Queen's request?

Mr. Stevens. That I could not say. I probably knew at the time; but I would not be sure. I think they were changed. They regarded her native guard as of no consequence whatever. The reason I had for raising the flag, I will give you in as condensed form as I have it, when you reach that.

The Chairman. I have not reached that. I am trying to find out what the situation was at the time. Was there any interruption of the relations between the Provisional Government and the American Government or between the Provisional Government and any foreign government during this period of time after the proclamation of the Provisional Government and up to the time of the raising the flag?

Mr. Stevens. I should say no interruptions; but I would have to give the facts, that you might understand my answer fully. That will enter right into the reasons for raising the flag. I will give those reasons very specifically.

The Chairman. There were no interruptions of the relations?

Mr. Stevens. Do you mean the diplomatic relations?

The Chairman. Yes.

Mr. Stevens. Not so far as I know.

The Chairman. What Governments had recognized the Provisional Government before the time of the raising of this flag?

Mr. Stevens. Every one represented there.

The Chairman. Which were—--

Mr. Stevens. The English Government, the German Government,

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