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Senator Gray. When was that?
Mr. McCandless. That was probably the middle of February. I can not say the date.
The Chairman. Who was the marshal?
Mr. McCandless. George Ashley. He was appointed and removed afterwards.
The Chairman. Was any force used to put down that riot?
Mr. McCandless. Oh, no; that was allowed just to quietly subside.
The Chairman. Was there any occasion since the establishment of the Provisional Government when there were any riots which rendered it necessary, or it appeared to be necessary, to put them down?
Mr. McCandless. No.
The Chairman. The country has been in a peaceful state under the Provisional Government?
Mr. McCandless. Yes; there was only one thing they were afraid of, and that was incendiarism. Of course, we heard of that constantly— heard of it from the men it came from.
The Chairman. Threats of burnings?
Mr. McCandless. Threats of burnings.
The Chairman. After you had organized your force under Col. Soper on Tuesday the 17th, did you have any apprehension that Queen Liliuokalani could marshal a military force or armed citizens' force of sufficient magnitude and strength to reinstate her in her possession of the Government?
Mr. McCandless. No; but we did not take any chances on that— we continued to perfect our organization and to extend it so as to be ready for anything of that kind.
The Chairman. Taking all you know about the Hawaiian Islands and the native population and the warmth of the men who were engaged in and are now carrying on this Provisional Government, is it your opinion that Liliuokalani has any chance toward reinstating herself without the intervention of some foreign government?
Mr. McCandless. None whatever. She has not had from the first.
The Chairman. Did you regard the movement from the time it was inaugurated as one determined and resolute, or one that might give way to some counter movement on the Queen's part—some concessions on her part?
Mr. McCandless. There never was any such idea prevailed there that I know of. It was one of strict determination. We sent the commissioners to San Francisco. When we found that annexation had not taken place under Mr. Harrison's administration we felt that our interests were in just as good hands under President Cleveland. We did not see how the dial could be turned backward.
The Chairman. You say that annexation was the ultimate result of this revolution—that such was the belief of those who were engaged in it?
Mr. McCandless. Yes. You could not have gotten the men to take up arms otherwise. The whole object was annexation.
The Chairman. You spoke of that being the case the year before.
Mr. McCandless. That was only a stepping-stone—the annexation movement in '87.
The Chairman. Do you know whether the Kanaka population, the native population, sympathize in that sentiment?
Mr. McCandless. In '87 they did. Nearly the whole native population was on our side—sympathized with the movement. Of course there were none of them taken into the organization.
The Chairman. Was that distinctively an annexation movement in'87?
Mr. McCandless. Oh, yes.
The Chairman. What change, if any, has occurred since that time?
Mr. McCandless. The natives were completely captured with the idea of the lottery being there, and that there would be no further trouble about having all the money they needed if they could get the lottery. They were carried away with that idea. The native is like an Indian; he will spend all the money he can get to gamble.
The Chairman. They are gamblers?
Mr. McCandless. Yes.
Senator Gray. What is their principal game, cards?
Mr. McCandless. They do not care for cards. They have a Chinese game there called "Paka Pia" and che-fah. There were as high as fifteen to twenty games running in the city at a time. That consisted of going in and buying the tickets, guessing a number or a word. It was a Chinese game, and they were very fond of it. It was a very common report that the marshal's office was receiving $500 a week to allow that game to continue—receiving the money from these different banks. The Chinese cook that I had at my place told me of it. The Chinese do not think anything of bribing, and the games are controlled by the Chinese. He said that the marshal got $500 a week and the deputy marshal so much, and the others still less, making about a thousand dollars a week that was paid.
The Chairman. This Hawaiian sympathy. Had that died out before the revolution?
Mr. McCandless. I think it had.
The Chairman. Among Kanakas.
Mr. McCandless. I think so, although the annexation question had not been discussed publicly until the last two or three years. It was discussed then publicly through the press and openly.
The Chairman. And that sentiment died out because they thought they could get the money under a separate government through lottery schemes and such like?
Mr. McCandless. Yes. I know the leaders of the last Legislature, among the natives, would pat their pockets, right in the legislative chamber, and say, "Here is what we are here for." It had gotten to that condition. I have seen that myself, right in the legislative hall.
The Chairman. By the members of the Legislature?
Mr. McCandless. By the members of the Legislature.
Senator Gray. The white members?
Mr. McCandless. The half-whites. It had gotten to that pass that it was just about as corrupt as it could be.
The Chairman. What time did you leave the islands to come over here?
Mr. McCandless. The 1st day of June.
The Chairman. Did you leave to come here to give your testimony?
Mr. McCandless. No. I have larger interests in the State of Washington than I have in the Hawaiian Islands. Like many people there, I come to the States to invest my money. I went to the State of Washington in 1886. My partner stayed there, and has been there ever since, and as I accumulate money I take it to the State of Washington.
The Chairman. Your visit to the United States is merely on business?
Mr. McCandless. Yes. I would not have come over except that I promised my family to come to the Fair.
S. Doc. 231, pt 6----63
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