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Reports of Committee on Foreign Relations 1789-1901 Volume 6 pp550-551 300dpi scan (VERY LARGE!)

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Senator Gray. In the chamber?

Mr. Emerson. I was in the chamber and saw the vote taken and beard the bill read. I can not state just the nature of the bill; but it was a bill that granted a franchise to a certain number of persons to establish a lottery in that country.

Senator Gray. For what purpose; did it state?

Mr. Emerson. As I understood it it was for their own----

Senator Gray. To raise revenue?

Mr. Emerson. Five hundred thousand dollars was offered the Government and an annuity. Then there was a rider put on by Mr. Thurston and Mr. Smith, the last thing before it passed, to the effect that $125,000—that there must be a certain putting down of that money, a deposit made to the extent of $125,000, before this body could operate. The idea was to stave off any attempt to do the thing unless the Louisiana lottery would take hold. They did not want the Louisiana lottery, and it would not be there unless the Louisiana lottery would take hold, and the question was whether the Louisiana lottery would take hold.

Senator Gray. And they wanted a deposit of actual money?

Mr. Emerson. Yes. The feeling was to hamper the bill as much as possible.

Senator Gray. That rider was put on by the enemies of the bill?

Mr. Emerson. Yes.

Senator Sherman. Does gambling prevail among the natives of Hawaii?

Mr. Emerson. I am sorry to say that it does to a large extent. The natives are led into it by Chinamen and by—I will say chiefly by Chinamen.

Senator Gray. Participated in by whites at all?

Mr. Emerson. I think the whites have their own way of gambling. I do not think they go to these little stalls and buy checks and gamble. It is the Chinese chefa game.

Senator Gray. The Chinese have a distinct system of gambling of of their own?

Mr. Emerson. That is the system that appeals to the natives.

Senator Gray. Is there any gambling among the whites?

Mr. Emerson. I suppose there is considerable. There is a certain class of whites which was associated with the Kalakauan throne.

Senator Gray. I have been very much interested in the account you gave of the native population, of their disposition and habits and education. You say it would be very difficult, as I understood you, to find a person over 12 years of age who could not read and write?

Mr. Emerson. I think it would be very difficult among the natives.

Senator Gray. Do you think those people capable of self-government as we understand it here?

Mr. Emerson. I can not answer that categorically; I must qualify it by saying this: The Hawaiians are in the hands of two parties; one party makes for righteousness and the other for spoils.

Senator Gray. Do you think they are themselves capable of originating or maintaining popular self-government?

Mr. Emerson. I think with their environment they can not do it.

Senator Sherman. I believe we have statistics here among the papers showing the increase among the Portuguese and the decline of the Hawaiians.

Senator Frye. Yes.

The Chairman. The Portuguese go there by importation.


Mr. Emerson. I think the agent went to the Azores and negotiated for certain laborers. They come from the islands.

Senator Sherman. Are they not a good deal mixed; is there not a mixture of Portugese and other Indian blood?

Mr. Emerson. In some there is a mixture. I do not just know the situation in the Madeira or the group of the Azores Islands.

Senator Gray. Are they not classed as such?

Mr. Emerson. We class them as European.

The Chairman. In coming to Hawaii, do they bring their families?

Mr. Emerson. Many of them do.

The Chairman. And establish homes?

Mr. Emerson. Some of them are most industrious and thrifty.

The Chairman. In establishing homes?

Mr. Emerson. Yes.

The Chairman. They represent a good industrious element?

Mr. Emerson. We think it is a great gain.

The Chairman. Are they difficult to control?

Mr. Emerson. We do not think so.

The Chairman. I mean in their general demeanor in the community?

Mr. Emerson. I do not think so. They are a peaceful people.

Senator Gray. Do they maintain their language or speak the Hawaiian?

Mr. Emerson. They speak Portuguese.

The Chairman. Are they members of any church?

Mr. Emerson. They are mostly Roman Catholics; but most of them are prejudiced' against the Jesuits. And my experience has been in the mission work that they are not very bigoted or under the control of the priests. They have no priests of their nationality there. There was no preaching in Portuguese until we introduced a preacher, and then they introduced one.

The Chairman. Do the Portuguese build Catholic churches?

Mr. Emerson. No. I do not think they have separate churches. We have two among the Portuguese.

Senator Gray. Missions among the Portuguese?

Mr. Emerson. Yes.

Senator Gray. To convert them from Romanism?

Mr. Emerson. No. There was the nucleus of a protestant element. We have a school in our mission in Honolulu. We have a gentleman and three ladies who have worked with him, and they have a day and night school, a kindergarten, and a good many children of Roman Catholic Portuguese go there to attend our schools. Our intention is to give them a biblical Christianity; it is not proselyting. One family after another has come over to express their adherence.

Senator Gray. Does the Catholic mission have churches?

Mr. Emerson. It has its cathedral and out stations and its priests.

The Chairman. When these Portuguese arrive do they go on the sugar plantations in the country or stop in the town?

Mr. Emerson. Those who come as contract laborers have to go on the sugar plantation. I do not think many are brought now as contract laborers.

The Chairman. So that you regard them as a peaceful element of society?

Mr. Emerson. I will answer in this way: My two brothers are conducting a Sabbath school in connection with this mission, and they have more interest in the Portuguese work than in the Hawaiian work

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