646-647

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Reports of Committee on Foreign Relations 1789-1901 Volume 6 pp646-647 300dpi scan (VERY LARGE!)

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behind that wall by a base-ball pitcher and between 200 and 300 feet. They fell on the roof of the building and burst it in. It was covered with corrugated iron. They did not stay there very long.

The Chairman. That was what building?

Mr. Alexander. Iolani Palace.

The Chairman. "Unfortunately this was by no means a bloodless affair, as seven of Wilcox' deluded followers were killed and about a dozen wounded. It was afterwards known that 10,000 rounds of ammunitions were loaned from the U. S. S. Adams to the Government forces."

What do you call the Government forces, the rifles?

Mr. Alexander. Yes.

The Chairman. And the attacking party?

Mr. Alexander. And the attacking party.

The Chairman. "Wilcox was afterward put on trial for treason, and was acquitted by a native jury, on the theory that what they did was by and with the King's consent."

Mr. Alexander. Yes.

The Chairman. What was the result?

Mr. Alexander. There were three for conviction and nine for acquital.

Senator Frye. Is that regarded as a disagreement of the jury?

Mr. Alexander. Yes. Three-fourths of a jury may convict. The jury system is peculiar there. Foreigners are tried by a jury made up of foreigners, and natives and half-whites are tried by a native jury.

The Chairman. A native jury may be composed of Kanakas or half-whites?

Mr. Alexander. Yes. In late years race prejudices have influenced the juries to a great extent.

The Chairman. But the rule is that three-fourths of a jury may convict?

Mr. Alexander. Yes.

The Chairman. I read: "He became a popular idol, and had unbounded influence over the Honolulu natives for a time. The Princess, Liliuokalani, however deserted him and denied all knowledge of the conspiracy. This unfortunate affair was made the most of by demagogues to intensify race hatred. The license of the native press was almost incredible."

I will ask you whether the press is free in Hawaii?

Mr. Alexander. Yes; free.

The Chairman. Amenable only for libelous publications?

Mr. Alexander. Yes.

The Chairman. "A project of a new commercial treaty with the United States was drawn up in the fall of 1889 by the ministry in conjunction with Hon. H. A. P. Carter. It provided for free trade between the two countries, the perpetual cession of Pearl Harbor to the United States, and a guarantee of the independence of the islands by that power. By working on the King's suspicions, Mr. C. W. Ashford, the Canadian member of the cabinet, induced the King to refuse to sign the draft of the treaty."

Is Mr. Ashford there now?

Mr. Alexander. Yes. He is a royalist at present. He took the ground that the King was not bound, because the cabinet was not unanimous. The rest of the cabinet invited him to resign and he would not.

Senator Gray. Was Mr. Ashford in the cabinet?

Mr. Alexander. He was in the cabinet—attorney-general. And

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he got an opinion of the supreme court to the effect that a majority oi the cabinet should rule. But they defied the opinion of the supreme court.

Senator Gray. Who defied it?

Mr. Alexander. That is, Ashford and the King. The attorney general advised the King that that was an ex parte decision.

Senator Gray. It was not judicial?

Mr. Alexander. It was not judicial. It was not a regular decision.

The Chairman. You speak of Mr. Ashford as the Canadian member. Is he a native of Canada?

Mr. Alexander. Yes.

The Chairman. A naturalized citizen of Hawaii?

Mr. Alexander. No, I think not. But I think they had a way of issuing letters patent, to give a person the privilege of a naturalized citizen without being thoroughly naturalized.

The Chairman. That is called denizenship?

Mr. Alexander. Denizenship. I know they had to be denizens before they could practice law.

Senator Gray. Is not that the case with a great many foreigners?

Mr. Alexander. Not naturalized?

Senator Gray. Yes.

Mr. Alexander. Under the old constitution it was almost impossible for a white man to be naturalized. Under Kalakaua's reign the law required five years' residence, and it was then at the King's discretion; he could sign the naturalization paper or not. And I know cases where white men were refused on political grounds. For example, Mr. Hitt Wallace, brother of General William Wallace, his application was refused because he was opposed to Gibson in politics. Under the old naturalization laws the applicant did not abjure his own nationality; there were cases that came up before the United States commissioner where they claimed that they were still American citizens.

Senator Gray. What I ask is whether during the last few years it is not a fact that foreigners, Americans, Europeans, whatever their nationality, vote and exercise the rights of suffrage without being naturalized?

Mr. Alexander. That is true under the constitution of 1887.

The Chairman: "A copy of the treaty, including an article, canceled by the cabinet, which authorized the landing of United States troops in certain contingencies, was secretly furnished by the King to a native paper for publication, and the cry was raised that the ministry were 'selling the country' to the United States.

Owing to division in the reform party, and other causes mentioned above, a strong opposition was elected to the Legislature, and the reform ministry went out of office on a tie vote."

Mr. Alexander. That is, there were motions brought in of want of confidence. An amendment was proposed to turn Mr. Ashford out of the cabinet. The vote was taken on that amendment, and there was a majority of one for it. The speaker claimed the right to vote and made a tie. So the motion failed.

The Chairman. Was that motion against Ashford personally?

Mr. Alexander. Yes; it was an amendment to turn him out as a traitor. It failed; then the cabinet resigned, and he was obliged to.

The Chairman. "As the parties were so nearly balanced, a compromise cabinet, composed of conservative men, was appointed June 17, 1890, viz: John A. Cummins, minister of foreign affairs; C. N. Spencer,


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