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Reports of Committee on Foreign Relations 1789-1901 Volume 6 pp648-649 300dpi scan (VERY LARGE!)

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of the interior; Godfrey Brown, of finance; and A. P. Peterson, attorney- general."

Is that the same Peterson who is now one of the advisory council?

Mr. Alexander. No; he was a member of the last cabinet. He was the only white man who voted for the lottery bill.

The Chairman. Is he a royalist?

Mr. Alexander. Royalist.

Senator Gray. You were all royalists at that time, were you not?

Mr. Alexander. You might say he was a tory; that would be more correct.

Senator Gray. You were a royalist?

Mr. Alexander. I was not a tory; I was a whig.

Senator Gray. You were a royalist?

Mr. Alexander. Yes; I was a royalist then.

The Chairman. "The King at first proposed to the new premier his old project of a ten-million loan for naval and military purposes, but met with no encouragement. He then published a pamphlet entitled 'A Third Warning Voice,' in which he urged the establishment of a large standing army."

That is the premier did that?

Mr. Alexander. No; the King.

The Chairman. "Another project favored by the King and agitated by the royalist papers was that of convening a convention, to be elected by universal suffrage, to frame a new constitution, in which the white race should be deprived of political power. With great difficulty and by the exercise of much patience and tact, this revolutionary measure was defeated, and certain amendments were proposed, lowering the qualifications required of voters for nobles, etc. After a stormy session of five months the legislature adjourned without undoing the reforms of 1887.

"In order to recruit his failing health, the King visited California in the United States cruiser Charleston as the guest of Admiral Brown in November, 1890. He received the utmost kindness and hospitality, both in San Francisco and in southern California. His health, however, continued to fail, in spite of the best medical attendance, and on the 20th of January, 1891, he breathed his last at the Palace Hotel, San Francisco.

"In spite of his grave faults as a ruler and as a man, he was kindhearted and courteous in private life, and there was sincere mourning in Honolulu when the news of his death arrived there.

"Grave apprehensions were then felt at the accession of his sister, Liliuokalani, which, however, were partially relieved by her promptly taking the oath to maintain the constitution of 1887. Notwithstanding her reactionary views and her dubious record, it was hoped by many that she had enough good sense to understand her true interests and to abide by the spirit as well as the letter of the constitution. These were destined to be disappointed. Her ideal of government was the same as that of her brother, and her determination to realize it brought on the last revolution.

"Her first demand was that the existing cabinet should resign, and leave her to appoint a new cabinet. The cabinet claimed that under the constitution no power could remove them but the Legislature. On her side it was claimed that they were the late King's cabinet and 'died with the King.'

"The dispute was referred to the supreme court, which decided in favor of the Queen, Judge McCully dissenting. This gave her an


opportunity to make conditions with her appointees and to get control of the patronage in the interest of her favorites.

"Her first and chief condition with the incoming ministry was that C. B. Wilson, a notorious palace favorite (who had been appointed superintendent of water works at her request in 1881), should be appointed marshal of the Kingdom, with control of the entire police force of the islands. During the following year the administration of his department became a national scandal. The marshal openly associated on intimate terms with such criminals as Capt. Whaley, who was one of the owners of the smuggling schooner Halcyon, and was styled 'King of the opium ring,' and those Australian fugitives from justice who came to Honolulu in the yacht Beagle.

"He drew around him a gang of disreputable characters, and the whole police force became more corrupt than ever, while opium joints, gambling dens, and other criminal resorts flourished and multiplied, with its connivance. At the same time it was universally believed that the said Wilson exercised as much influence in the administration of public affairs as any member of the cabinet. To put an end to this state of things, was the chief object both of the members of the reform party and of the so-called liberals in the elections of 1892. " In the spring of 1892 a secret league was formed, headed by V. V. Ashford, R. W. Wilcox, J. E. Bush and others, for the purpose, as they expressed it, of promoting justice and equal rights in the political government of Hawaii."

That is a quotation?

Mr. Alexander. Yes.

The Chairman. From what do you take it?

Mr. Alexander. Their own publications, particularly from Mr. Ashford's. They published a paper, and Mr. Ashford published a statement in it in which he used those words.

The Chairman. Used those words?

Mr. Alexander. Yes.

The Chairman. Have you a copy of that paper?

Mr. Alexander. It is printed in Mr. Blount's report.

The Chairman. It is the same paper that is printed in Mr. Blount's report, the paper to which you have called attention?

Mr. Alexander. I had nothing to do with it; it was given by Mr. Ashford himself.

The Chairman. "Their objects included the removal of all property qualifications for voters, the abolition of the monarchy, and ultimate union with the United States."

At present how many of those men—Ashford, Wilcox, and Bush - are annexationists?

Mr. Alexander. Those leaders are not annexationists. Y. V. Ashford does still claim to be an annexationist; Wilcox and Bush, who were leaders of that insurrection in 1889, to restore absent power, at this time are extreme royalists.

Senator Gray. Is Ashford a royalist?

Mr. Alexander. He calls himself a United States annexationist.

Senator Gray. Would you call him a royalist?

Mr. Alexander. Not a royalist as the other gentlemen are.

Senator Gray. You did speak of Ashford as a royalist?

Mr. Alexander. I believe that C. W. Ashford is on the side of the Queen. C. W. Ashford has changed sides so many times it would be hard to keep run of him.

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