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petitions in its favor, which have been published at the end of Col. Blount's report, but without date.

"The impression which is sought to be made is that these petitions were sent in shortly before the passage of the said bill, and influenced the mind of the Queen in signing it."

Mr. Alexander. I should have inserted the words "by Mr. Nordhoff," so that it would read: "The impression which is sought to be made by Mr. Nordhoff," etc. I might give a wrong impression if those words were omitted, and I should be sorry to make an insinuation against Mr. Blount. That completes the historical part.

The Chairman. I continue:

"The facts are that these petitions were signed before the first introduction of the lottery bill, which was on the 30th of August, 1892, four and a half months before its final passage.

"The signatures were obtained by a rapid secret canvass, before publicity had been given to the movement, and before any discussion of its effects had taken place. Many signed without reflection who afterward deeply regretted it. As soon as the bill was printed a powerful opposition sprang up, which resulted in its being shelved, as was supposed, forever. Still it was known by some that the Queen and Wilson had been in favor of it from the first, and that the snake had been only 'scotched,' not killed.

Near the end of the session, in the absence of six of its opponents, the bill was suddenly revived, rushed through and signed in the face of a strong and unanimous protest by the chamber of commerce, and numerous memorials and petitions from all quarters.

"The passage of that bill, the voting out of an upright ministry, and the attempted coup d'etat were all parts of one plan to corrupt and destroy honest constitutional government in Hawaii. As it was only one white man dared to vote for it.

"W. D. Alexander."

Is there anything else?

Mr. Alexander. That is all.


The Chairman. You belong to the Navy?

Mr. Young. Yes; I am a lieutenant in the Navy, on duty at present in the Navy Department engaged in the work of compiling the Naval War Records of the late rebellion.

The Chairman. Were you on the cruiser Boston in January, 1893?

Mr. Young. Yes; I was on the Boston during her entire stay in Honolulu.

The Chairman. When did the Boston first arrive there?

Mr. Young. On or about the 24th of August, 1892.

The Chairman. Did she remain in the harbor during all the time?

Mr. Young. She only left the harbor twice; once in October, I think it was, we went out to look up some shipwrecked Americans who had been cast upon the large island of Hawaii. We found them and brought them back to Honolulu. Then, on the 4th of January we went to Hilo, on the island of Hawaii, for target practice, and returned to Honolulu on the 14th of January.

Senator Butler. How long were you on that first trip?

Mr. Young. I think five days.

The Chairman. Did Minister Stevens go with you on your second cruise?


Mr. Young. Yes; he and his daughter went with us.

The Chairman. The one who was subsequently drowned?

Mr. Young. Yes. I helped her into the boat as she was going ashore.

The Chairman. Where were you?

Mr. Young. Off the island of Hawaii. She had been visiting one of the sugar estates there. It was in lowering her into the boat for passage from shore to the Inter-Island steamer, which was done in a cage, that she was drowned. One of the natives told me that he believed she was killed before she struck the water; that the waves struck her and she was killed in the cage. She was to take passage for Honolulu on a little island steamer, not the Boston. We landed her at the same place where she was drowned and then proceeded to Hilo.

The Chairman. Do you remember the date of her death?

Mr. Young. I can get that. We went down on the 4th; returned on the 14th, and her death must have been on the 18th, I should say. I think the minister got the news of the death about the time the revolution was going on.

The Chairman. I will ask you whether or not at the time you first left there you had some acquaintance with the state of public feeling and the situation of affairs generally in Honolulu?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. Was there any evidence of a commotion or outbreak?

Mr. Young. When we left none whatever, everything appeared to be settled. And that was the reason that justified us in leaving to get this target practice which we were in need of.

The Chairman. Prior to that time was there any agitation in Honolulu?

Mr. Young. Yes; a good deal of agitation in reference to the voting out of the several ministrys by the Legislature and persistent appointment by the Queen of others inimical to American interests unsatisfactory to the intelligent members of the Legislature and wealthy classes on the islands. This involved a good deal of diplomatic trouble between the American and British ministers in reference to the interests of their respective countries, and I have seen the latter on the floor of the Legislature while in session lobbying. Finally a cabinet was appointed representing the wealth and intelligence of the islands, and also in favor of American interests. When they attempted to vote them out by a vote of want of confidence they failed to do so, and it left the matter looking like they were there to stay and we went away.

Senator Frye. That was the Wilcox cabinet?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. So that the situation when you left Honolulu on that cruise was one of quiet, peace, and composure?

Mr. Young. Yes; everything was perfectly quiet when we left the harbor.

Senator Frye. It was the expectation that the Wilcox ministry was to continue for a long time?

Mr. Young. Yes. Minister Stevens told Capt. Wiltse in my presence that he believed the Wilcox ministry would continue, but Capt. Wiltse said that he did not think so.

Senator Frye. Minister Stevens believed it would continue?

Mr. Young. Yes; so he stated to me, and Capt. Wiltse based his opinion on what I heard on shore and reported to him. I heard from


one of the ministers, Mr. Parker, that all the native members of the Legislature were willing to have this cabinet out, and they expected to get one or two of the whites to go with them, and to vote them out very shortly.

Senator Frye. That was Parker?

Mr. Young. Sam Parker, yes; a former minister of foreign affairs.

The Chairman. Did you communicate that to Capt. Wiltse?

Mr. Young. Yes; I told him that myself.

The Chairman. But the minister did not believe there would be a disturbance of the cabinet, and he went away on this cruise?

Mr. Young. Yes; he did not believe there would be any disturbance at all.

The Chairman. And took his daughter with him?

Mr. Young. Yes; he believed that the ministry had come to stay and they could not be removed.

Senator Gray. What was the date of this cruise?

Mr. Young. Fourth of January when we left Honolulu.

The Chairman. Did Minister Stevens have any other part of his family with him?

Mr. Young. Yes; his wife and another daughter were in Honolulu.

The Chairman. They did not go with you on the cruise?

Mr. Young. No; they remained at home.

The Chairman. Where did you first go?

Mr. Young. The first to Hilo, the port of entry, situated on what is known as the island of Hawaii, the largest of the group, and we returned to Lahaina, on the island of Maui. An intimate friend of mine came on board near midnight from the island steamer that had left Honolulu the afternoon preceding and communicated to me that the Wilcox ministry had been voted out the day before and another one appointed in its stead. I told Captain Wiltse and Minister Stevens. At the time we were getting up steam to return to Honolulu in obedience to orders the evening before that we might arrive there in the daytime.

The Chairman. Is there any telegraphic communication between those islands?

Mr. Young. No; they attempted to construct an inter-island cable, but it soon corroded and was rendered useless.

The Chairman. You have to depend on steamers for communication between the islands?

Mr. Young. Yes, the inter-island steamers. They make their trips twice a week. One is the Widler Company and the other is the Inter- Island Steam Navigation Company.

The Chairman. How many days were you getting into Honolulu from Hilo?

Mr. Young. We left Hilo and returned to Lahaina and were there two days. We left Lahaina at 12 o'clock on the 13th of January, and we arrived in Honolulu at 10:30 o'clock on the morning of the 14th of January—Saturday.

The Chairman. Did Minister Stevens immediately go ashore?

Mr. Young. I am not sure about it. I was sent for by the captain, at least, I was off duty and he requested me, which was equivalent to an order, to put on full dress uniform and accompany the consul-general to the ceremonies of the prorogation of the Legislature. Before the ship was secured even, I left the ship.

The Chairman. Who was the commander of the Boston troops that landed?


Mr. Young. Lieut. Commander Swinburn; he is down at Annapolis.

The Chairman. Had you been invited to attend the ceremonies of the prorogation of the Legislature?

Mr. Young. We had been invited; yes.

The Chairman. That is customary?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. A matter of ceremony?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. Did you attend the prorogation?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. Were you with any troops?

Mr. Young. There was no one but myself; I was in full-dress uniform.

The Chairman. Do you know whether Minister Stevens left the ship before you did?

Mr. Young. No. My impression is I left before he did.

The Chairman. Did you go immediately to the Government house?

Mr. Young. I went first to the consul-general's and we drove together to the Government building.

The Chairman. That is not Iolani palace?

Mr. Young. No; it faces it, some little distance from it.

The Chairman. About how many yards ?

Mr. Young. I should say about 400 yards.

The Chairman. As much as that?

Mr. Young. It may be less—about 300 yards. The palace is situated in a large square, and King street passes in front of the palace. There is a kind of yard in front of the Government building, I should say between 300 and 400 yards very nearly.

The Chairman. Had you seen the consul-general before that day?

Mr. Young. No; I went to the consulate to meet him.

Senator Frye. Who was the consul-general?

Mr. Young. Mr. Severance. I went direct to the consul-general's office, and we together went to the Government building.

Senator Butler. You mean the consul-general of the United States?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Butler. Was this Government building where the legislature met?

Mr. Young. Yes, sir; that is where the Legislature sits, but it was also the supreme court chamber and the other offices in the same building; but the large hall was the legislative hall. The Legislature was composed of nobles and representatives sitting in joint session.

The Chairman. Did you proceed immediately with the consul-general to the Government building?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. What was going on when you got there?

Mr. Young. When I got there there was quite a crowd around the rear end of the building, and two or three leading Americans and Judge Hartwell, who was one of the leading lawyers of the place and minister under Kalakaua, informed me that the Queen contemplated the promulgation of a new constitution immediately after the adjournment of the Legislature, and asked me if I would not go on board ship and inform Captain Wiltse. I went in to speak of it to Consul-General Severance, and he laughed and said, "I do not believe a word of it." I went in and was shown the seat assigned me in the legislative hall, a little to the left and in front of the rostrum where speaker used to


sit, and which the Queen used when she read her proclamation. After waiting some little time they commenced, and I believe it was about the funniest affair I ever saw in my life—a circus.

The procession was headed by two or three lackeys, and then followed the governor of Oahu, father to the heiress apparent, dressed in a gaudy uniform covered with gold and orders; the chamberlain with attendants all dressed up in uniform, and then came Her Majesty, with a long train, and four lackeys in knee breeches carrying the train, and then the two royal princesses, ladies in waiting, a staff, the four ministers, and other attendants. It was a very amusing scene. Afterwards the proclamation was handed to her in a portfolio, when she stepped to the front of the rostrum and began reading, first in English and then in Kanaka. I do not believe there were more than one or two white members of the Legislature present at the time. The Kanakas and every one were decorated with the various orders of Kamehameha I and Kalakaua, consisting of great big stars stretched out on the breast. It was quite a circus and very amusing.

The Chairman. Were any of them wearing wreaths of flowers?

Mr. Young. No; I did not see any of them.

The Chairman. Do you know what that signifies in Hawaii—the wearing of wreaths of flowers?

Mr. Young. No, I do not. I have heard a great many reasons. But the nearest I could get to it was simply a decoration and ornament. A natural passion for flowers.

The Chairman. Not a badge of office?

Mr. Young. No; simply an ornament—decoration.

The Chairman. Do you remember the Queen's proclamation of prorogation of the Legislature?

Mr. Young. No. I think it was simply to thank them for the faithful performance of their duty, and now that the Government was at peace with everybody, etc., she thanked them for their attendance, and so on—really a complimentary affair; and then wound up by declaring this Legislature prorogued.

The Chairman. That meant that there was to be a new election?

Mr. Young. Yes; the Legislature meets every two years.

Senator Butler. How long had that been in session?

Mr. Young. We arrived in Honolulu about the 24th of August, and I think they had been in session since about the 1st of July. They continued in session up to January 14.

Senator Butler. When it was prorogued by the Queen?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. The two houses sit together?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. Nobles and representatives?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Butler. IS that the usual way?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Butler. The Queen always appears and prorogues the Legislature?

Mr. Young. Yes. The nobles and representatives sit in joint session

Senator Gray. Vote together?

Mr. Young. Yes; and the ministers sit with them and vote.

Senator Gray. The vote is not taken in each house separately; the roll is not called separately?


Mr. Young. I have been there and I thought they voted right along as they called the roll.

Senator Gray. And questions are decided by a majority of the whole vote?

Mr. Young. Yes; I have also seen them vote aye and no, by holding up their hands.

The Chairman. Immediately after this legislature was prorogued, what became of the Queen? Where did she go?

Mr. Young. She passed into a large room on the left facing the rostrum; a large reception room about twice as large as this, where she held her reception.

The Chairman. Did you go in?

Mr. Young. Yes; I passed on through the door. The consul told me he was going back to the office. I told him I was there in an official capacity, and I felt it my duty to go through with it.

Senator Gray. You wauted to see the sights of the side circus?

Mr. Young. Yes; the Governor of Oahu, Mr. Cleghorn, stopped me at the door and talked to me in a nervous strain as though to retain me. I passed in and bowed to the Queen and her ministers standing on the right, her aids, and passed on through the door. The Queen looked at me rather savagely, and did not return my salutation with any cordiality at all. I noticed that she acted in a peculiar way. First when she was reading her proclamation I thought she had a little stage fright, but in this reception room I saw that she was under the influence of a stimulant, in fact she was drunk. There is no question in my mind about it at all. Then I passed out into the yard and started to go over into the palace, and I was advised not to go. Then I was told again on the outside that as soon as the Queen came over to the palace she was going to promulgate the new constitution. I was also informed that at the palace the night before there had been placed four or five pieces of artillery, enfilading the approaches to the palace, and that the Queen's household was said to be under arms. I thought affairs looked very serious, and that it was my duty to go immediately on board ship and inform my commanding officer, which I did.

The Chairman. Who told you that?

Mr. Young. Different people.

The Chairman. Can you name them?

Mr. Young. Yes; Judge Hartwell was one who told me, and I was also told by a half-white Kanaka. I do not know his name. I was told by two or three persons.

The Chairman. Did you see those brass pieces?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. Where were they?

Mr. Young. I did not see them that day.

The Chairman. Where were they when you did see them?

Mr. Young. Down in the yard of the palace when I saw them.

Senator Butler. Is that palace located in an open reservation?

Mr. Young. Yes; it is a square, a perfect square, and right in the center of this square is the palace. In the top of the palace, the upper part of the palace, there are two halls. They cross each other at right angles. I had this statement confirmed afterward by some of the people stationed there. Wilcox, who was asked to take command of these pieces but refused, told me so afterwards. They were planted at the end of each one of these corridors.

Senator Butler. Is the palace surrounded by streets on each side?

Mr. Young. Yes.

S. Doc. 231, pt 6----44


Senator Frye. The Wilcox you reter to was C. P. Wilcox?

Mr. Young. He was a young man who was sent by Kalakaua to Italy to be educated in the military school there. The Queen asked him to take charge of these pieces in the palace, and he declined to do it, and they were then placed under the command of Nowlein, who was in charge of the Household Guards, and he took charge. He told me he had men stationed there all the time.

Senator Butler. Where did you go?

Mr. Young. I went aboard ship and reported to Capt. Wiltse what was going on, and he ordered me to go on shore in citizen's clothes and learn all I could and keep him posted. I went on shore and I found what I had heard before had become general throughout the town.

Senator Butler. What about the promulgation of the new constitution?

Mr. Young. Yes; and also that a large meeting was in progress at W. O. Smith's office, on Fort street. I went in there and I made some inquiries, and I was told that two of the ministers had appealed for protection, and that the Queen had threatened to shoot them.

Senator Frye. They were the Queen's present ministers?

Mr. Young. Yes; Mr. Peterson and Mr. Colburn. Mr. Peterson and Mr. Colburn told me afterwards that they believed the Queen would have had them shot if they had not gone out.

Senator Butler. Out of the palace?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Butler. Where were the troops located?

Mr. Young. In the palace grounds, inside of this reservation, and the police were down at the police station. And there was quite a number of people in W. O. Smith's office, most of them white, a good many Kanakas; I should say there were three rooms packed and jammed with people. I could not get into the inner rooms from the crowd, and they appointed a committee of safety.

The Chairman. How far was this office from the police station?

Mr. Young. Not more than 800 to 1,000 yards.

The Chairman. How far from the Government buildings?

Mr. Young. About three-quarters of a mile.

Senator Butler. Is that this place, put down on the maps as the barracks?

Mr. Young. No; different place. [Indicating on the diagram.] I passed on down King street and went into the palace grounds after leaving Smith's office. I met several gentlemen, and asked them for information. When I went into the palace grounds there were two natives on the balcony of the palace haranguing the Kanakas, the overseer standing near them; and a man there, who interpreted what was said, stated that the Kanakas were stating to the crowd that the ministry, under the influence of the whites, had prevented the Queen giving them a new constitution, and they were appealing to the crowd and asking them to rise and shoot the crowd, whites and all.

The Chairman. That was afterwards interpreted to you?

Mr. Young. Interpreted to me at the time.

The Chairman. By those Kanakas?

Mr. Young. Yes, at the time.

The Chairman. As the statements were being made were these two men standing by the Queen?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. Were they on the balcony?


Mr. Young. Standing on the balcony.

Senator Butler. This meeting at Smith's office was in sympathy with the Queen.

Mr. Young. No; in sympathy with the old ministers. Coleburn and Peterson came down town and appealed to these people to protect them, stating that the Queen had threatened to shoot them, and it was threatened that they were to be locked up. A great many people, more people, came on in this place. The rooms were crowded; there were 250 to 300 persons there.

Senator Butler. In Smith's office?

Mr. Young. Yes, and gathered around the door. I stayed in there a short time and then passed on down to the palace, and after I got a cab and drove around town, came back to the business portion of the town, and I sent three or four messages over to Capt. Wiltse, telling him what was going on. I stayed on shore until 12 o'clock that evening.

The Chairman. Or night?

Mr. Young. At night. At night quiet crowds gathered arouud town and also in the club, and in the conversation all who had been the Queen's supporters were bitterly denouncing her acts, and there was nothing indicating anything but an effort to stop the Queen from promulgating her constitution. I met Chief Justice Judd, who stopped me and told me he had been in the palace some three or four hours, somewhere in that neighborhood, and he said that they had finally persuaded her not to promulgate the constitution that afternoon, but she insisted that she would do it in two or three days. But Chief Justice Judd said: "The trouble is over, and I think we may be able to stop it yet."

Senator Butler. You were in citizen's dress?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. Is Mr. Judd the chief justice of the supreme court of Hawaii?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. He was not disturbed in his office?

Mr. Young. No. The only officials removed were four of the cabinet and also the marshal, and also of the guards.

The Chairman. When you speak of having gone from Smith's office to the palace grounds where you heard translated what these Kanakas said, did you see any artillery or other arms?

Mr. Young. The Household Guards were all under arms.

The Chairman. How many were there of them? Mr. Young. About 60 of them.

The Chairman. Where were they?

Mr. Young. In front of the palace, drawn up in lines near the approach to the palace, and some of them were on sentry duty back in the yard.

Senator Butler. Do you know of your own knowledge whether they were supplied with ammunition or not?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. Did you find any other persons on that occasion?

Mr. Young. No.

The Chairman. Did you find any society or body of men in array?

Mr. Young. None at all.

The Chairman. Were there many citizens, and if so, how many, around the palace building at that time?

Mr. Young. One part of the palace grounds was crowded.

The Chairman. With whom?


Mr. Young. Kanakas and whites both, and also King street down facing Palace Square.

The Chairman. Were they making any demonstration?

Mr. Young. No.

The Chairman. Any cheering, hurrahing?

Mr. Young. No. On the contrary the natives themselves even stopped these two Kanakas from speaking. They went up and tried to stop them. One of them, named White I think, they caught him and pulled him down from the balcony, and as they did he continued to screech, out and holler his remarks as they pulled him down from the balcony.

Senator Gray. Was he sober?

Mr. Young. I do not think he was.

The Chairman. Did you get what he said after they pulled him down from the balcony?

Mr. Young. Yes. I was told that he said, "I will not stop; I will continue until we get the constitution, or we will drive every white off the island."

The Chairman. That was while the Kanakas were pulling him down from the balcony?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. How high was that balcony where the Queen stood above the ground?

Mr. Young. About ten or fifteen feet.

The Chairman. These persons who pulled down this Mr. White, did they climb up?

Mr. Young. Yes; it is near the stairway.

The Chairman. Was the Queen near the stairway?

Mr. Young. Yes; right by the door.

The Chairman. Ss that she was accessible to the persons from the outside?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. Did you see any of the artillery around the palace at that time?

Senator Gray. When was the first time after that that you saw these little brass pieces?

Mr. Young. It was some little time after. The new Government got them down when I saw the pieces.

Senator Butler. This was the 14th?

Mr. Young. On the 14th.

Senator Butler. The day of your arrival?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Butler. What time of day?

Mr. Young. About 5 o'clock.

Senator Butler. In the afternoon?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Butler. You had been in yonr uniform and attended the prorogation?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Butler. And then you returned aboard ship and returned in citizen's dress ?

Mr. Young. Yes; under the orders from the captain.

Senator Butler. That was how long after the prorogation?

Mr. Young. They prorogued the Legislature about 11 o'clock; this was about 5—5 or 6 o'clock, afterwards.


Senator Butler. After the Queen had retired from the Government building to the palace?

Mr. Young. Yes. She had gone to the palace about 1 o'clock, after the reception.

The Chairman. This collection of the people around the palace relates to the palace of Iolani?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. Not to the Government building?

Mr. Young. Not to the Government building.

The Chairman. After the prorogation of the Legislature the Queen went to her palace?

Mr. Young. Yes. She has a place on Beretania street.

The Chairman. How far is the Queen's palace from the Legislature?

Mr. Young. About 300 to 400 yards.

The Chairman. What time did you get on board ship that evening?

Mr. Young. About a few minutes before 12 o'clock.

The Chairman. In the meantime had you received any instructions from Captain Wiltse?

Mr. Young. I simply received a return message to a message from me, telling me to continue and get all the news I could.

The Chairman. Was that a verbal message?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. Not in writing?

Mr. Young. Not in writing.

Senator Frye. Have you completed your statement of the information you secured up to the time you went back aboard ship?

Mr. Young. Yes, that is about the whole of it.

The Chairman. That was on Saturday?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Gray. The 14th of January?

Mr. Young. The 14th.

The Chairman. Did you report to Capt. Wiltse when you got back?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. Did you give him information of what you had seen after you got on shipboard?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. As you have stated it here?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. Did you state to Capt. Wiltse that peace could have been preserved without the intervention of the troops?

Mr. Young. Yes; I told him there would be no trouble that day, but it would come; that from the temper of the people if the Queen attempted it there would be an uprising. I had heard conversations to that effect all over the city, even by her own adherents.

The Chairman. How long did you remain on board ship before you returned on shore?

Mr. Young. Until Monday afternoon, when I returned with the battalion.

The Chairman. Were you in command of any part of the battalion?

Mr. Young. Yes, the artillery.

The Chairman. What time did you get orders?

Mr. Young. At about half past 10 o'clock I was on duty—we were washing down ship after the cruise—about half past 10 Capt. Wiltse sent for me and told me the condition of affairs and what he had heard and it looked like they were going to have trouble; that the government


could not under any circumstances protect life and property, and that he felt that he would have to land the troops. He asked me how long I would be before I could land two Gatling guns and two 37 revolving cannon. I told him, a half hour. He said, very well, and told me to look around and see that everything was all right, "I think I will have to land the troops." I remarked to him, "I think they should have landed the evening before from what I heard," and he said he did not want to do it until it was necessary. I got one Gatling gun and one 37 R. C. and a caisson of ammunition all ready to land.

Shortly afterward I was sent for by Capt. Wiltse, and Capt. Wiltse always took me in his confidence in pretty nearly everything he did. He closed his door and read me his confidential letter of instructions from the Department and also from Admiral Brown. We discussed the matter, and he stated under the circumstances—he wanted to discuss the matter with me—I made the remark that in case we landed we would have to be very careful or we would be accused of taking part with one side or the other.

The Chairman. The letter from the Department of which you speak was from the Navy Department?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. Where was Admiral Brown1?

Mr. Young. Admiral Brown was on the San Francisco and in command of that station at the time of delivering his instructions.

The Chairman. Where was Admiral Brown at the time?

Mr. Brown. I think Norfolk, Va., at the time. When he left Honolulu he left instructions with Captain Wiltse, as the admiral in command of the station, to be followed out in his absence.

The Chairman. These papers were read to you?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. Have you any copies of them?

Mr. Young. No.

The Chairman. Would the ship's papers show copies of them?

Mr. Young. No, they were not in Capt. Wiltse's letter book. They are of a confidential nature and were kept locked up in a separate drawer. They could be found in the Department, I suppose, with the official papers of the ship.

The Chairman. Can you remember the instructions of the Navy Department to Capt. Wiltse?

Mr. Young. They are extracts from the confidential instructions that were sent to Minister Stevens.

The Chairman. By whom?

Mr. Young. By the State Department. I do not remember the gist of them. We discussed the landing more than we did the paper. My recollection is that the paper stated that you will use every means and endeavor to act in concert with the minister to preserve and protect our treaty rights with the Sandwith Islands, even if necessary to use force. My recollection is that is about the gist of it.

The Chairman. Now, the instructions given by Admiral Brown?

Mr. Young. Simply a memorandum of the instructions of a similar nature, and also to land the forces once a week for drill and exercise; that they had permission from the Government to land the men under arms for that purpose?

The Chairman. At Honolulu?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. Had there been drills of that kind?


Mr. Young. Every week. We landed once a week on the permission of the Government and used the baseball grounds. They drilled there often, and a great many people came down to see them, it seemed to be a kind of pleasure to the inhabitants of the city when things were favorable. We had one of the best battalions I have ever seen.

The Chairman. What is the strength?

Mr. Young. Three companies of blue jackets, one of artillery, and one of marines, making 154 all told, and about 10 officers.

Senator Butler. How many marines?

Mr. Young. Thirty-two marines, I think.

The Chairman. What time did you leave ship?

Mr. Young. About 5 o'clock—I suppose about a quarter of 5. We were ordered to land at 4, and our battalion was gotten together immediately after dinner, which was between 12 and 1. That was Monday, the 16th. On Saturday the Legislature was prorogued; on Sunday the agitation was kept up, and on Sunday night the volunteer forces around town began to arm.

Senator Butler. Were you on shore then?

Mr. Young. Yes, sir; on Saturday and Saturday night. They met at two rendezvous, 1 was informed, one on Emma street and the other on Nuuana avenue.

Senator Frye. They were the Provisional Government's volunteers?

Mr. Young. I never heard of any Provisional Government or intimation of it until Monday morning.

Senator Frye. They were the whites?

Mr. Young. They were the whites armed, as I understood, to protect themselves against the promulgation of the new constitution, which constitution, I was told, deprived them of all rights and franchises.

Senator Gray. Were you present at those rendezvous?

Mr. Young. No; I was told about it by informants, and after by participants.

The Chairman. I want to know if any troops left the ship before the detachment which you commanded.

Mr. Young. No; we landed in a body.

The Chairman. You went first?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. That was 5 o'clock in the evening?

Mr. Young. Five o'clock in the evening. We got the men armed and equipped for heavy marching order—knapsacks and double belts of cartridges holding from 60 to 80 rounds. And I had the caisson filled, taking in all about 14,000 rounds of caliber .45 for the rifle and gatling, 1,200 rounds of caliber .38 for the revolvers, and 174 common explosive shells for the revolving cannon. Each one of these belts carried from 60 to 80 rounds. About 3 o'clock Minister Stevens came on board and was in consultation with Capt. Wiltse. The captain sent for the officers going with the battalion, and had a conference in his cabin.

The Chairman. Did you hear it?

Mr. Young. Yes. Minister Stevens told the captain that there was a very large massmeeting that afternoon in the old armory on Beretania street, and they had agreed to support the report made by the committee of safety to abrogate the monarchy; and that there was a counter mass-meeting held by low whites and Kanakas in Palace Square, whose action indicated an opposition to them, and that these things indicated that trouble was to take place; that the committee of safety through him had asked Capt. Wiltse if he would land the troops to


protect life and property. He remarked to the captain that he need not apprehend any danger of being fired upon, because nothing of the kind had ever been done under any circumstances. After a few minutes Capt. Wiltse turned to him and said, "I have decided to land the troops already, and I will land them at 4 o'clock; they are all ready to land, and here is an order I have written to the commanding officer, Lieut-Commander Swinburn." The order was taken almost bodily from the confidential letter to Captain Wiltse.

Then one of the officers present made the remark, "Captain, in case there is a change in the situation and we should be attacked by any one of the contending parties how far are these orders to extend; what shall we do under such circumstances?" Capt. Wiltse then supplemented his written order by the verbal statement, "The situation is such that it will require a great deal of judgment on the part of you officers who are going on shore; you have been here a number of months, and know all the Americans and their property; that is what I want to protect, and I want you to be careful and remain as neutral as you can." Those were the oral instructigns. Mr. Stevens then made the remark, "I am very glad you are going to land them, because I think it is absolutely necessary." Mr. Stevens then left the vessel and returned to the shore.

The Chairman. How far from the coast was the Boston at that time?

Mr. Young. About a half mile. We were anchored, moored, at least, in what is known as the Naval row in the harbor.

The Chairman. Did you change the position of the ship?

Mr. Young. No, not at all: she remained in the same position all the time.

The Chairman. Were the guns trained on the city in any way?

Mr. Young. No.

The Chairman. When you came out how many boats did it require to bring your men, the whole detachment?

Mr. Young. We could have brought them in fewer boats; but we divided them in platoons, and each platoon took a boat.

The Chairman. How many boats did it take?

Mr. Young. Four companies making 8 platoons, and each platoon had a boat.

The Chairman. Were they landed in a body?

Mr. Young. Yes, they formed immediately on getting on shore with the artillery in the rear.

The Chairman. Who was in command?

Mr. Young. Lieut. Commander Swinburn, the executive officer of the ship.

The Chairman. Where was the company ordered to go?

Mr Young. We had no definite point at all. We landed at Brewer's wharf, and marched up to the corner of Fort and Merchant streets, where the consul general's office was, and there left a marine company, which was to protect the American legation and consulate. The rest of the battalion turned and marched down King street in front of the palace, and as we passed the palace the Queen was standing on the balcony, when we gave her the royal salute by drooping the colors and four ruffles on the drums. We passed the palace 250 yards, and there waited until we could find some place to go into camp. We made an effort at first to get the old armory near the landing, so as to be near our base of supplies and throw out pickets in case of emergency. But we failed to get that, and then tried to get the opera house. They were the only two buildings near the center of the town, and not being able


to get them we went to the yard of a white man named Atherton, and there we bivouacked under the trees in the rain until 9.30 p.m, when the aid to Capt. Wiltse reported they had secured a little hall in the rear of the opera house, known as Arion Hall, which is used as a Mormon temple now, I believe. We marched there and went into camp.

Senator Gray. Inside the building?

Mr. Young. Inside the building; yes. And the yard was turned over to us also. I was detailed as officer of the day, and stationed my pickets and guards around inside the inclosure and not out. I then patroled myself in front the opera house, where I could get a view of the vicinity of the fortified police station and center of the city along King street and the cross street cutting in at Palace Place, also the vicinity of the Government barracks across the Palace Square, the approaches to the armory occupied by the revolutionary forces, and the grounds surrounding the Government buildings. I sent out men to get all the information that I could. I know that when we marched through town I never saw a policeman; but when I went outside to get men to obtain information for me, I was informed that the police to the number of about 80 were fortified in the station house, and 60 troops were in the barracks, all under arms, and afraid to come out.

The Chairman. The Queen's troops?

Mr. Young. The Queen's troops. And there was nobody out on the streets to protect any one, to prevent incendiarism and pilfering. I had a full view down King street and of the approaches to this police station; also to the heart of the town down the other street, which puts in there from Fort street.

Senator Butler. Did you carry your artillery with you?

Mr. Young. It was all in the park. From there I had a view down to the police station; and across here [indicating on diagram] I could see. Here [indicating] is the armory; that [indicating] is where the barracks are, where the Government troops were; they were stationed principally in the palace grounds. I heard them drilling all night long, giving orders. I could see across this square [indicating], and across this place here [indicating]. I could control down there [indicating]. There were 2 alarms during the night, fire alarms of an incendiary nature, and I called out the guards ready for action till I got information they were not needed. I sent off a courier to find out what this fire was, and finding it was not American property I made no further move, but returned the guard to their quarters.

The Chairman. How far away from the camp were those fires?

Mr. Young. One on Emma square, which is about two squares off; the other on Beretania street, about a mile off. I have no doubt that the drawing up of the guard inspired confidence among the people. The Government troops were 80 and 60, and those were all the troops they ever had at any time. Mr. Wilson showed me a statement where he claimed that he had 800 men. I told him that I had been informed by participants, and I had verified their statements, that he had only 80 and 60, and he laughed and told me of course he had not that number; but he had appointed a number of men around town as spies, who gave information, and he knew a lot of Kanakas he could call in to make up the number. He never had but 80 and 60 under his command.

Senator Frye Of the Queen's guard and police?

Mr. Young. Queen's guard and police. At the same time there were 175 men under arms of the volunteer force. They were quartered in the appointed rendezvous on Emma street and at the old armory, and 50 more down at the other rendezvous on Nuuana avenue.


Senator Butler. How many men did you land?

Mr. Young. We landed 154 men and 10 officers.

The Chairman. Who had command of the troops at the Queen's palace.

Mr. Young. Nowlein.

The Chairman. They were the Queen's army?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. She had no other army but that?

Mr. Young. No.

The Chairman. Who had charge of these troops at the police station?

Mr. Young. Wilson, the marshal.

The Chairman. He was commander in chief, next to the Queen?

Mr. Young. Yes. The Attorney-General was over him; but he was at the head of the troops.

The Chairman. I suppose you took rations with you over to the camp?

Mr. Young. Yes. We took only enough to last that evening, and we detailed cooks the next morning to send our rations from the ship.

The Chairman. Already cooked?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. How soon after getting there did you first see Capt. Wiltse on shore?

Mr. Young. I saw Capt. Wiltse in the evening, just shortly after we arrived at Arion Hall, and I had some little talk with him.

Senator Butler. Did he appear in full uniform?

Mr. Young. Yes; he was in uniform at all times. In conversation he intimated to me that he supposed he would have to follow out all other precedents in order to prevent any incendiarism, pilfering, injury to life and property, and would have to stop all fighting in the streets.

The Chairman. Did Capt. Wiltse go back on shipboard that night?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. When did you again see him there?

Mr. Young. The next morning—next forenoon.

The Chairman. Did he make any change in his orders the next day?

Mr. Young. None at all.

The Chairman. Where did you remain on Tuesday?

Mr. Young. In Arion Hall two days, and then we went down to the old Bishop building, on King street, not over 300 yards from there. Arion Hall was only a temporary affair, because we could not get anywhere else.

The Chairman. How long did the troops remain at Camp Boston?

Mr. Young. I left with a contingent of the artillery on the 3d of February; then there was one company on the 4th of March returned to the ship and the rest reembarked on the 1st of April.

The Chairman. Under whose orders did you leave?

Mr. Young. Under the orders of Capt. Wiltse.

The Chairman. From whom did he receive orders?

Mr. Young. No one at all. He was the senior officer present.

The Chairman. He did not receive any instructions from Mr. Blount?

Mr. Young. He was not there then. Admiral Skerrett received instructions from Mr. Blount?

The Chairman. That was later.

Mr. Young. That was the last of April.

Senator Butler. At what time did Admiral Skerrett arrive there?


Mr. Young. Admiral Skerrett arrived somewhere at out the middle of February.

Senator Butler. The San Francisco was his flagship?

Mr. Young. The Mohican was his flagship; and after the Mohican left he transferred his flag to the Boston, and then to the Philadelphia after it arrived to relieve the Boston.

The Chairman. These troops remained how long on shore?

Mr. Young. The first were withdrawn on the 3d of February. We landed on the 16th of January, and remained there until the 3d of February, when I withdrew, went on board with the main portion of the artillery; another company left about the middle of March, and all of them were withdrawn on the 1st of April.

The Chairman. Who was in command of the fleet there at the time these respective detachments were withdrawn?

Mr. Young. Admiral Skerrett.

The Chairman. All the time?

Mr. Young. No. I returned on board with the artillery before Admiral Skerrett arrived.

The Chairman. Under the orders of Captain Wiltse?

Mr. Young. Yes. After Admiral Skerrett arrived I landed with my men and junior officer for inspection, and returned on board the same day.

The Chairman. Did you land for the purpose of inspection?

Mr. Young. That is all.

The Chairman. And did not go into camp?

Mr. Young. No.

The Chairman. These troops under Admiral Skerrett remained there how long?

Mr. Young. Until the 1st of April, when they were ordered to return aboard ship by Mr. Blount.

The Chairman. Those were the last of the troops?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. Before that they had been returned in detachments?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. What men returned on the 1st of April?

Mr. Young. A company of blue jackets and company of marines that were still on shore.

The Chairman. On the 1st of April?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. When you got to Camp Boston did you erect a flagstaff?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. That was to indicate that it was the camp of the American troops?

Mr. Young. Yes; and also closed all the approaches to it, and no man was allowed out of that camp without leave of absence, except the officers, and they had to be in by 9 o'clock at night. We simply confined ourselves to that camp, and confined the men there.

The Chairman. You had strict military discipline?

Mr. Young. Military discipline, and drills there the same as any camp. Late in the evening we would go down to Palace Square, where we would have more room, for dress parade, and were witnessed by everybody. After we first went into Camp Boston we sent out a grand guard—that is, a company in one direction and then in another—for the purpose of seeing that American property had not been injured or


touched, and also to prevent any incendiarism or anything of that nature.

Senator Gray. Let the people know that you were there?

Mr. Young. Yes; which we had done on all occasions of that nature.

Senator Butler. Did you send out a detachment to patrol over the city at any time?

Mr. Young. No; no patrol beside that.

Senator Butler. Beside the grand guard?

Mr. Young. No.

Senator Butler. No separate patrol?

Mr. Young. No; they were the only ones.

The Chairman. Did you post any sentinels over the city—over the buildings?

Mr. Young. None until the protectorate was declared and the flag was raised over the Government building, when we left a marine guard there. That was to protect the building; nothing to do outside. All the police duty was done by the Provisional troops; all our marines remained in the camp.

The Chairman. Where was their camp?

Mr. Young. Inside the legislative hall. They took that for their barracks.

Senator Butler. What troops were those?

Mr. Young. The company of marines.

Senator Gray. They were camped in the Government building?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Gray. When did they go there?

Mr. Young. When they hoisted the flag. When the flag was hoisted I have forgotten now; I think it was the 1st of February.

Senator Gray. You mean the American flag over the Government building.

Mr. Young. Yes; and the staff is there still, not taken down.

The Chairman. During the time that this guard of marines remained at the Government building, were the offices there occupied by the Provisional Government?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. Was there any guard of the Provisional Government there?

Mr. Young. Yes; they did all the guard duty out in the yard.

The Chairman. Where did the marines do guard duty?

Mr. Young. Only right there, in their own quarters. They had no sentries out, to my recollection. There was an orderly kept in front of the building.

The Chairman. By whose order was that flag put up at the Government building, and on what day?

Mr. Young. It was put up by the order of Capt. Wiltse, and our men did it. There was a proclamation issued declaring a temporary protectorate, etc., signed by the minister and approved by Capt. Wiltse. It was read by the adjutant at the time of raising the flag, and immediately the Boston fired 21 guns, with no flag exhibited at the masthead. In firing a salute we always have the flag of the nation we salute at the masthead.

The Chairman. What was the cause of firing this salute?

Mr. Young. To salute our flag.

Senator Gray. If you had been saluting the Hawaiin Government you would have had the Hawaiian flag at the masthead?

Mr. Young. Yes.


The Chairman. At the time you fired this salute there was a protectorate proclaimed?

Mr. Young. Yes; a temporary one.

The Chairman. Signed by the minister and approved by Captain Wiltse?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. And read to the troops at Camp Boston?

Mr. Young. No; we left Camp Boston at 8:30 and were drawn up in line at the Government building when the flag was hoisted.

The Chairman. What day was that?

Mr. Young. The 1st of February. There were Provisional troops that flanked our troops on the left and rear.

Senator Butler. Do you know whether Capt. Wiltse reserved a copy of that proclamation?

Mr. Young. Undoubtedly. It would be in his letter book.

The Chairman. Do you remember the substance of the proclamation?

Mr. Young. I have forgotten exactly how it started, but the gist was "Hereby declare a temporary protectorate over the Hawaiian Islands, pending negotiations in Washington."

The Chairman. Was there any change in or withdrawal of that proclamation between that time and the time that Mr. Blount directed the troops to go aboard ship?

Mr. Young. None at all; remained in that situation until Mr. Blount ordered the troops aboard ship and ordered Admiral Skerrett to haul down the flag.

The Chairman. What was the state of the public mind during this period of the occupancy by the United States troops from the time the flag was raised until it was withdrawn? I speak now in respect of the arrangement of the people there—whether there was any excitement or irregularity.

Mr. Young. While it was hoisted there was no irregularity or disturbance, nor did I hear any but favorable comment about it.

The Chairman. What do you estimate, or do you know anything about it, the military strength of the Provisional Government at the time that flag was ordered returned on board ship by Mr. Blount?

Mr. Young. They had 100 men under pay; they had an artillery company of 60 men, volunteers; they had two companies of volunteers, consisting of about 30 men to the company, and then they had what they called a home guard. That was composed of the leading citizens all around town, divided up into corporals' squads, and each squad had its rendezvous at different places in the city. The man in command of them showed me his books and he had 400 names on them.

Senator Butler. That was the home guard?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. Was the home guard armed?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. Taking the whole mass together, what would be the whole number of the armed forces?

Mr. Young. I should say, between 700 and 800.

The Chairman. Was there any artillery?

Mr. Young. Yes; four pieces of artillery, breech-loaders, and also four Austrian guns.

The Chairman. Any others?

Mr. Young. Two short Gatling.

Senator Butler. No horses, I suppose, for the battery?


Mr. Young. No. The large pieces were intended for horses, but they moved them by drag ropes.

Senator Butler. They were moved by hand?

Mr. Young. Yes; drag ropes. I wrote the drill they have, at their request; a little friendly act.

The Chairman. Did you take any charge of these troops?

Mr. Young. No, not at all.

The Chairman. After the United States troops were withdrawn on shipboard, on the 1st of April, I will ask you how long you stayed there after the 1st of April.

Mr. Young. In Honolulu?

The Chairman. Yes.

Mr. Young. Until the 20th of September last.

The Chairman. During that period of time was there at any time any outbreak amongst the citizens?

Mr. Young. There was no outbreak; but one evening there was a disturbance between some Japanese contractors and laborers. About 400 of them came into town one evening armed with their machetes from the plantation, and they were instigated to it by some of the adherents of the Queen, who told them that in case the United States had anything to do with these islands their contracts would be perpetual and they would be slaves the rest of time.

Senator Butler. Who were they ?

Mr. Young. Contractors and laborers on estates about 20 miles from Honolulu. And the people had a great deal of apprehension from these Japanese, and finally the Japanese minister sent a vessel down to Hawaii to put a stop to these movements.

The Chairman. When you got back to Honolulu from this cruise to Hilo and Lahaina, what ships did you find in the bay—ships of war?

Mr. Young. I do not think there was but one man-of-war, and that was the Japanese school ship Congo.

The Chairman. Did any come in afterwards?

Mr. Young. Yes, the Naniwa, a Japanese cruiser, came in afterward. That is the vessel whose model we took to build the Charleston by. It is exactly the same, except that the Charleston is a heavier beam, larger by an inch in beam.

Senator Butler. A pretty formidable ship?

Mr. Young. Yes. She was built by Armstrong, of England.

The Chairman. How many others?

Mr. Young. An English ship, the Nymphe came. I think it was the Nymphe. She remained about two or three weeks. That was before the revolution. There was another English vessel there. I have forgotten her name. I know Capt. McArthur was in command. They passed on south. They only remained in the harbor a few days.

Senator Butler. Were they ships of war?

Mr. Young. Yes; gunboats—English gunboats.

Senator Butler. Were you present when the flag was hauled down on the 1st of April?

Mr. Young. I was on board ship.

Senator Butler. You were not on shore?

Mr. Young. No.

Senator Butler. Did you go on shore after that?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Butler. Was there any demonstration at all by the people of the town?

Mr. Young. There was no demonstration of any forces at all; but I


heard a great many people, particularly the leading ones, make, the remark that they were afraid it would give them a great deal of trouble, and they were afraid in the event of other vessels coming in they might land some forces in the city.

Senator Butler. What do you mean? Some foreign government?

Mr. Young. Foreign government; yes. Their expression was that they did not feel secure under the situation.

Senator Butler. No other troops were landed from foreign vessels?

Mr. Young. They made an effort to; but the Government declined to let them land—the Japanese and the English Governments—for the purpose of drilling; but they declined to allow them.

The Chairman. You mean that the Provisional Government declined to allow them?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Butler. When was that?

Mr. Young. Along about the last of January or early in February.

Senator Butler. Did they ask permission to land to drill?

Mr. Young. Yes.

The Chairman. And the Government declined to grant it?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Butler. And they did not land?

Mr. Young. No.

The Chairman. State whether during the fifteen or sixteen days of January, and before the troops went ashore from the Boston, there was any offer on the part of Capt. Wiltse to send troops ashore which had been rejected by the Provisional Government?

Mr. Young. No.

The Chairman. Nothing of that sort occurred?

Mr. Young. No. We had been landing troops once a week for drill.

The Chairman. Do you know what time the first request of Minister Stevens was received by Capt. Wiltse in regard to landing the troops?

Mr. Young. The only information I have of any request at all of Capt. Wiltse was at 3 o'clock on Monday, after the battalion was ready to land.

The Chairman. That was after Minister Stevens came on board?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Frye. Mr. Stevens came after Capt. Wiltse had given orders?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Butler. Am I to understand you as saying that Capt. Wiltse pursued that course because of orders received from Admiral Brown?

Mr. Young. No. Because of the condition of things on shore, of which he received information at the time. There were two mass-meetings, in opposition to each other, at the time.

Senator Butler. I thought you had referred to some secret instructions which Captain Wiltse had received from Admiral Brown, and which were substantially the instructions which he had received from the Navy Department?

Mr. Young. Yes; his instructions were substantially those received from Admiral Brown.

Senator Butler. But the instructions under which he acted were received from the Navy Department?

Mr. Young. The Department; yes. No; his instructions


Senator Butler. I am speaking of the time you went ashore on the 16th of January.

Mr. Young. He simply landed on his own responsibility. We had no orders to land, except that Capt. Wiltse's confidential instructions were to protect our treaty interests even if force was necessary.

Senator Butler. And Capt. Wiltse was to be the judge as to when that exigency arose?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Gray. When you were summoned to Capt. Wiltse's cabin on the morning of the 16th, which was about half-past 10, you say?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Gray. Did he make any statement.

Mr. Young. No. He told me that affairs were looking very serious on shore, and "I believe I will have to land the troops."

Senator Gray. Capt. Wiltse had been ashore that morning?

Mr. Young. Yes. It was shortly after he came back from the shore.

Senator Butler. I believe it is true that a naval officer is not bound to obey an illegal order. Is not that so under your regulations?

Mr. Young. No; on the contrary, an officer is supposed to obey all orders emanating from an immediate military superior. Yet in doing so he has to exercise discretion and is held personally responsible for his own acts as to the results following the execution of the order. Admiral Worden in giving an interpretation of that at the Naval Academy told us that "whenever you receive an order, before executing it determine whether you will receive more punishment for obeying that order than you would by disobeying it. If you find that you will receive less punishment by obeying it, do so." I think the admiral was right.

Senator Butler. What I want to get at is this: If you are in command of a ship at a foreign port with general instructions, as in this case, to protect treaty rights of this Government with the foreign government, and you are in doubt as to the propriety of landing troops, you solve that doubt in favor of landing?

Mr. Young. I would try to find out the situation, weigh the matter all over, and I would have that doubt removed before I acted.

Senator Butler. Suppose the condition were such that you could not have an absolute removal?

Mr. Young. Then I would give the benefit of my judgment as to landing.

Senator Butler. That is what I want. You would solve that doubt by landing for the purpose of preserving treaty rights?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Butler. That would be the usual course of a naval officer where he was in doubt?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Butler. And where there was no possibility of solving the doubt in his mind, he would land for the purpose of protecting life and property?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Butler. Would that be the rule of the naval officer?

Mr. Young. Yes; I think it would.

Senator Butler. And I suppose that was about Captain Wiltse's situation, was it not?

Mr. Young. No; Capt. Wiltse was actually informed, knew himself, and from others, that the condition of affairs on shore was such as to render it necessary for him to land at that time. And I think he made a mistake in not landing on Sunday, because of the condition. of danger


to life and property and incendiarism. It was such on Sunday night, even; but he deferred it until the very last minute. The Government was not in any condition to preserve life and property in the city; they were encamped in these two places, and they were afraid to come out of them.

Senator Frye. I want to call your attention to the time that you left Honolulu on the ship, the 4th of January, with our American minister on board. You had a conversation with Minister Stevens, did you not?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Frye. Did Mr. Stevens at that time express himself as confident that there was no further trouble, and that he was to be permitted to terminate his term of office and leave the Hawaiian Islands in quiet and undisturbed peace?

Mr. Young. Yes; his language to me on the quarter-deck in conversation I remember almost verbatim. It was that "I am glad to know that all is settled, and that we now have a cabinet in power in favor of the American interests, representing the intelligence and wealth of the islands, and that they will stay there, and that I will be able to complete my residence here and devote my days to my literary interests. Those were his remarks. And Sam Parker and others, I told him, would get the Kanaka votes of the Legislature; that they had been all secured, and they were now making an effort to get some of the whites to vote with them to make a majority to vote out this ministry, and I believed they would vote them out before the Legislature adjourned. Mr. Stevens said, "I do not see how they can do it; they have come in to stay during this Legislature and the next, and they will look out for American interests." Those were, as nearly as I can remember, his remarks, and I think almost verbatim.

Senator Frye. When you landed the troops, did you land them with any intention to aid either party?

Mr. Young. Not at all.

Senator Frye. Were you invited to aid either party?

Mr. Young. No. We were asked by President Dole. He sent over and asked Capt. Wiltse to recognize him.

The Chairman. When was that?

Mr. Young. After they formed the Government, and on the same day.

The Chairman. When was it?

Mr Young. The 17th. I was sent over with a message from Capt. Wiltse, with his compliments to President Dole, to ask him if he had absolute control of the Government, police force, and everything, and if he did not, he, Capt. Wiltse, would have nothing to do with them. I told Capt. Wiltse that Judge Dole had possession of the archives and Government building, but that President Dole said, "We have not control of the military forces and police, but we have a sufficient force to maintain us," and that I replied, "If you have not charge of the Government, I am requested to inform you that we can have nothing to do with you," and I returned and reported to Capt. Wiltse.

Senator Frye. When you were taken to Arion Hall, that was the only place you could go?

Mr. Young. Only for that evening.

Senator Frye. It was only a temporary occupancy?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Frye. Were any of your soldiers allowed outside of the hall to parade the square or anywhere else?

Mr. Young. Not at all, confined exclusively to the camp.

S. Doc. 231, pt 6----45


Senator Frye. You remember the situation of Arion Hall, the Government buildings, etc. Mr. Blount in his report—I do not know whether it was his opinion—says that it was impossible for the royalist troops to make any attempt to dislodge the people from the Government building without shooting your troops. Was that true at all?

Mr. Young. They could have fought all they pleased out in Palace Square and out in the Government grounds without ever affecting us in the slightest. But I doubt if we would have allowed them to fight out on the street down below, from the way Capt. Wiltse spoke. This American property in front of us, the Opera House, is owned by Americans, and all the residences off to the left was American property and some to the right of the palace was American property.

Senator Frye. From your observations when you were sent ashore for the purpose of observing, was not there a necessity, regardless of any request made by the Provisional Government or American minister, for the landing of the troops to protect American life and property?

Mr. Young. It was absolutely necessary, and I thought it was so on Sunday evening.

The Chairman. Allow me to ask you right there, had you ever been in Honolulu before?

Mr. Young. No; this was my first visit there. But I have landed from the ship on a good many occasions, and we simply did here what we have done before in other places.

The Chairman. In what other places?

Mr. Young. In Panama and Venezuela; and I also landed in Nicaragua once.

The Chairman. You speak now of occasions when you were present?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Frye. I do not know but that I misunderstood your language. You said in your testimony—I understood you to say—that Mr. Blount ordered Admiral Skerrett to haul down the flag?

Mr. Young. And to return the troops on board the ship.

Senator Frye. Did you mean that Mr. Blount gave an order to an Admiral of the United States Navy to do that?

Mr. Young. He gave a written order to that effect.

Senator Frye. Signed by himself?

Mr. Young. Signed by himself, and Admiral Skerrett's order to the Boston was in obedience to the orders of Commissioner Blount— "You will return troops on board ship by 11 o'clock."

Senator Frye. In your experience did you ever know a minister of the United States with or without the authority of the Secretary of the Navy or officer of the Navy giving orders to an admiral?

Mr. Young. No; I never heard of it before. A minister has no authority to give orders to an admiral while a ship is in any port.

Senator Frye. Under the regulations of the Navy, if a ship is in Honolulu, the disposition of the ship and the landing of the troops is entirely with the discretion of the officer in command?

Mr. Young. He is absolutely responsible for his own acts.

Senator Frye. And he cannot be compelled to land troops by any one except a superior officer ?

Mr. Young. A military superior.

Senator Gray. I suppose if you got an order from the President of the United States.

Mr. Young. He is commander in chief of all the military forces.

The Chairman. Suppose that that order emanate from the minister plenipotentiary at a foreign port?


Mr. Young. Then the commanding officer would be held absolutely responsible for his own act if he obeyed.

Senator Gray. Suppose he receive instructions from the Secretary of the Navy in a given emergency, given time, to conform his action to the order, if you please, of a person holding diplomatic relations with the Government, would that relieve him of responsibility ?

Mr Young. No.

Senator Gray. It would not?

Senator Butler. Do you mean to say that if the officer obeyed his orders through a civil officer, he would not be relieved of responsibility?

Mr. Young. If it was a written order accompanied by the minister's direction, he would still exercise his own discretion.

Senator Gray. If he receive instructions from the Secretary of the Navy that he must act under the order, advice, whatever you might call it—of the diplomatic person on shore when that request, order, or advice come?

Mr. Young. Still I do not believe it would relieve him entirely.

Senator Gray. Then you do not believe that the President of the United States is commander-in-chief?

Mr. Young. Yes; and that the Secretary of the Navy is the immediate military head of the Navy.

Senator Gray. When you receive an order by the Secretary of the Navy through the minister, do you not understand that the order is from the President of the United States?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Gray. And yet you say receiving such order, direction, or instructions from the Secretary of the Navy in a given contingency, you are not bound to obey?

Mr. Young. Of course we must obey the Secretary's order, but the channel through which it is received would question its authenticity; the officer in command is not freed of his responsibility.

Senator Gray. I mean, the Secretary of the Navy having in general directions sent to the commander of a ship instructing him when a certain contingency arises—not commanding through the usual channel, but through any channel through which the instructions come—would you consider that he should obey it?

Mr. Young. Yes; I would consider that he should obey it, so far as it does not involve the loss of life, the destruction of property, or precipitate war.

Senator Frye. Suppose the Secretary of the Navy should order Capt. Wiltse under any contingencies to follow the discretion and obey the orders of William P. Frye, who was then resident in the island of Hawaii, would Capt. Wiltse be bound by that order at all?

Mr. Young. He would be compelled to exercise a great deal of judgment in the matter, and would be still held responsible for his acts.

Senator Butler. I understand you to make this distinction—which, of course, any military man understands at once—that an order emanating from civil officers, whether diplomatic or any other civil branch of the Government, to a military or naval officer, that military or naval officer is not bound to obey it; and if he do, it would be on his own responsibility?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Butler. On the other hand, if the Secretary of the Navy, who is the military head of the Navy, transmits an order to a naval officer, if he be on the ship, he would be bound to obey?

Mr. Young. He would be bound to obey it. At the same time, if he


order me to fire on the town, I should not obey any such order unless I was clearly informed of the necessity.

Senator Butler. That is an extreme case.

Mr. Young. But I would obey the order of any minister or civil officer of an ordinary nature to avoid friction where it would not involve the loss of life or destruction of property.

Senator Butler. If you should receive an order from the Secretary of the Navy to fire on a town?

Mr. Young. I would fire; I would not hesitate a minute, not the slightest; but if it were sent through an improper channel I would have to see it in writing and the signature to it as well as satisfied of the necessity for so doing.

Senator Butler. That is a matter of discretion.

Senator Gray. It would be the exercise of a good deal of discretion if the President of the United States, or the Secretary of the Navy, were to give him an order and he should refuse to obey it.

Mr. Young. Of course, if the President should give me an order to organize a body guard for his protection or move a ship, etc., I would undoubtedly obey it; yet should he order me to shoot an inoffensive citizen, I would disobey, for the reason that disobeying would involve dismissal only, whereas, if I shot the man, the civil courts would try me for murder, and being adjudged guilty I might be hanged, unless the President were in office to pardon me.

Senator Gray. About this instruction from Mr. Gresham to Mr. Blount: "To enable you to fulfill this charge." This is the language of the Secretary of State in his letter of instructions to Mr. Blount.

"To enable you to fulfill this charge your authority in all matters touching the relations of this Governmont to the existing or other Government of the islands, or protection ot our citizens therein, is paramount, and in you is vested full discretion and power to determine when such forces should be landed and withdrawn."

Now, suppose as commander-in-chief of a ship you got an instruction from the Secretary of the Navy in which you informed that such an instruction were given by the President to the minister, and that you were to conform yourself thereto, and the minister should request you to land the forces—ordered you; whatever you may call it—advised you, would you consider yourself bound to obey?

Mr. Young. I would do it, for the simple reason that it would not involve any loss of life or property, and if I disobeyed it I would receive a greater punishment than if I obeyed it.

Senator Frye. You would still hold that it was in your discretion?

Senator Gray. What discretion?

Mr. Young. Whether it involved any loss of life or destruction of property which would hold me accountable for my acts.

The Chairman. Suppose the orders came through the channel spoken of by Mr. Gray, and you were ordered to fire on Honolulu, would you doit?

Mr. Young. No.

Senator Gray. That is not what I have called for.

The Chairman. I did.

Senator Gray. Whether your punishment was greater if you obeyed or if you disobeyed?

The Chairman. What we are discussing here is a question of law, as to how far the President can delegate his authority to a private citizen to take command of troops on ships in the strict military sense, and to use them for the purpose of hostility.


Senator Gray. The question was raised not by me whether it be proper. I am anxious to find out what the opinion of representative naval officers may be. Lieut. Young is in that respect an important witness. I do not mean that this matter is to be settled by a naval officer, because it is a question of law. I did not introduce it, but I really want to know whether the lieutenant thinks, as a naval officer, that his discretion (which is a wide one under certain circumstances) extends so far as to disobey the instructions of the Secretary of the Navy where those instructions involve cooperation with a diplomatic officer on shore, or, taking the very language of these instructions to Commissioner Blount, whether he thinks he would be authorized, if he were in command of a ship, to disobey the request, order, or advice given to him after receiving notice from the Secretary of the Navy that he was to obey such instructions either to land or to withdraw troops.

Mr. Young. I would obey the order just the same as Admiral Skerrett did.

Senator Frye. And when you hauled down the flag, I suppose you would say, as Admiral Skerrett did, "I do it in obedience to Mr. Blount's orders?"

Mr. Young. That is what was done, I believe.

Senator Gray. And if you put the flag up, you would say, "I did it in obedience to Mr. Stevens' orders?"

Mr. Young. No.

Senator Gray. What did you do?

Mr. Young. We would not put it up under his orders.

Senator Gray. I understood you to say that the protectorate was established by a proclamation made by Mr. Stevens and approved by Captain Wiltse?

Mr. Young. Captain Wiltse approved and carried it out. The law requires a naval officer, immediately after arriving in a foreign port, to put himself in communication with the diplomatic representative in that port, and by intercourse, conversation, requests, or otherwise find out the absolute state of affairs and to act according to his own responsibility.

Senator Gray. That is the ordinary rule when you go into a foreign port?

Mr. Young. Yes.

Senator Gray. Where the circumstances are not exceptional, but where the commissioner is under special directions from your Government, and through the ordinary channels of communication you receive from the naval authorities, from the President through the proper naval channels, orders to conform your action to certain requests that may be made by the minister, do you not think you would be obliged to obey it?

Mr. Young. I would obey if it were an ordinary affair; but I would not consider it a legal order.

Senator Gray. Do you think your duty as a naval officer in command of a ship in a foreign port in which a United States protectorate had been established would require you to-day to obey orders conveyed to you from the Government at Washington as to the continuance or discontinuance of that protectorate?

Mr. Young. The continuance or discontinuance?

Senator Gray. Yes.

Mr. Young. Of course, I would have to obey the orders that were sent from the Department.

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