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Reports of Committee on Foreign Relations 1789-1901 Volume 6 pp782-783 300dpi scan (VERY LARGE!)

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is to say, we sent out a small body of men for two or three hours to break up any disorderly gathering.

The Chairman. Were there any arrests made by the American forces?

Mr. Jewell. A few of the rioters were arrested at the court-house; but they were turned over to the police right away. As a rule the native police mingled with the crowd; they were as bad as the rest of them.

The Chairman. Did any of the Kanakas appear to take sides with Queen Emma?

Mr. Jewell. Oh, yes.

The Chairman. I mean with Kalakaua?

Mr. Jewell. The popular feeling amongst the natives in Honolulu at that time was against Kalakaua; that is to say, it was in favor of Queen Emma. But there were plenty of the better class of Kanakas who were in favor of Kalakaua.

The Chairman. I suppose it was a question, if I gather it correctly, between the pure native element and the mixed element of whites and half-whites and the better classes of the Kanaka people?

Mr. Jewell. I am sure I would not know how to divide the feeling in that way; I gathered it from very limited communication with the shore; I have only a general impression in regard to it, that most of the lower classes, the commoner Kanakas, were in favor of Queen Emma, and it was generally supposed the English residents were, particularly the English minister-resident, or whatever he may have been. It was an intrigue in favor of Queen Emma, and they had incited these common people to this performance, this riot.

The Chairman. Do you know where Kalakaua was during your stay there?

Mr. Jewell. No, I do not.

The Chairman. Did you see him?

Mr. Jewell. Oh, yes; I saw him frequently.

The Chairman. In his palace?

Mr. Jewell. I think I never saw him in the palace, though he lived there after his election was proclaimed.

The Chairman. Kalakaua remained in his palace after his election was proclaimed?

Mr. Jewell. Yes.

The Chairman. Before that time, did you know about him?

Mr. Jewell. I simply knew he was a clerk in the custom-house or post-office, or some other office.

The Chairman. Do you know where he was between the time of the death of Lunalilo and the election?

Mr. Jewell. I know he was in Honolulu.

The Chairman. But where—you do not know whether he was under the protection of any foreign ship?

Mr. Jewell. I know he was not.

Senator Frye. Who was it requested the troops to land at that time?

Mr. Jewell. It was understood that the request was made by Mr. Bishop, who was the minister of foreign affairs of the Hawaiian Government, to Mr. Pierce, the American minister resident; and between Mr. Pierce and Capt. Belknap—I do not know whether there was any written communication between them or not—but it was arranged between them that in the event of a riot the men were to be landed.

Senator Frye. Your troops did not bivouac down in the business part of the city?


Mr. Jewell. Yes; the armory, where the principal part of my men was was right in the business part of the city.

Senator Frye. But up around the court-house and the Government buildings?

Mr. Jewell. That was not the business part.

Senator Frye. They remained in the court-house and Government buildings three or four days?

Mr. Jewell. Yes.

Senator Frye. Under the law and naval regulations, what do you understand to be the rights of a United States naval officer touching the preservation of order in a naval city? I ask you that question because I noticed in reading the wording of the order which Capt. Wiltse gave to Lieut. Swinburne that he recited the protection of the consulate, the legation, the lives and property of American citizens, and to preserve order. What would you do as an officer if you were ordered to go ashore and do those things? What do you understand "preserving order" to be—what right would you have?

Mr. Jewell. Do you mean if I were actually in command of a body of troops which had landed to preserve order?

Senator Frye. Yes.

Mr. Jewell. I should arrest disorderly persons. I should break up incendiary meetings and take the people into custody.

Senator Frye. Would you not do it in cooperation with the Queen or whoever was then in power?

Mr. Jewell. Unquestionably with the constituted authorities—yes.

The Chairman. You say that these troops were landed at the request of the cabinet which had been appointed by Kalakaua?

Mr. Jewell. No; the previous cabinet.

The Chairman. Which had gone out of office?

Mr. Jewell. It had not gone out of office—no.

The Chairman. Was that request communicated in writing?

Mr. Jewell. I do not know about that; but my impression is it was not.

The Chairman. Was the purport of that request communicated to you by your superior officer?

Mr. Jewell. Well, only in conversation. In giving me my instructions Capt. Belknap had told me what this arrangement was.

The Chairman. Were your instructions in writing?

Mr. Jewell. They were not; they were verbal entirely.

The Chairman. Be kind enough to state what orders Capt. Belknap gave you on that occasion, and upon what grounds he based his right to give you such orders?

Mr. Jewell. Do you mean the orders previous to the landing of the troops?

The Chairman. Capt. Belknap was in actual command of the forces while they were on shore?

Mr. Jewell. Yes.

The Chairman. But while he was on shipboard you were the next in command?

Mr. Jewell. No; Lieut. Commander Clarke, of the Portsmouth, was the next in rank; but he was at the court-house, which was a quarter of a mile from where I was.

The Chairman. You were in command of the other detachment?

Mr. Jewell. Yes.

The Chairman. And you received your orders and instructions from Capt. Belknap and not through Lieut. Clarke?

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