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American Minister, by which the men were to be landed if they were wanted.
The Chairman. Lunalilo, the former King, was King by inheritance?
Mr. Jewell. So; he was elected King.
The Chairman. Was it not this way; that he was a King by inheritance, and he ordered a plebiscite to see if the people favored his going to the throne?
Mr. Jewell. I am not prepared to say that; but I am quite certain that he was not King by inheritance.
The Chairman. You understand that at the time of his election riots had occurred?
Mr. Jewell. Yes.
The Chairman. Was it your understanding also on that occasion that American troops had been landed?
Mr. Jewell. I think not, but I am not prepared to say positively.
The Chairman. It was in the time of the interregnum, as you term it, properly between the death of Lunalilo and the election of Kalakaua, that the American Minister requested the commander of these ships to land troops?
Mr. Jewell. To be prepared to land troops in case of necessity.
The Chairman. Had the election of Kalakaua taken place before you landed?
Mr. Jewell. It had; yes.
The Chairman. But you were in a state of preparation?
Mr. Jewell. We were standing by. The captain of the Tuscarora went on shore on the morning of the election, about 9 o'clock, and left me in charge of the ship, with instructions to keep a look out on the American bark where one of our officers was stationed with a signal which was to be given to land the men if needed, and we were in a state of preparation all day. We got the signal about 3 or 4 o'clock in the afternoon.
The Chairman. Who was the ranking officer in order at that time?
Mr. Jewell. Capt. Belknap.
The Chairman. He had command of the forces on both ships?
Mr. Jewell. Yes. The senior naval officer, the ranking naval officer, is always assumed by virtue of his rank to be in command of the forces.
The Chairman. How many men did you land?
Mr. Jewell. We landed about 80 men. I do not know exactly as to the Portsmouth, but 80 men from the Tuscarora.
The Chairman. How many from the other ship, the Portsmouth?
Mr. Jewell. 75 or 80. I think the whole force numbered 150 men.
The Chairman. Did you spend the night on shore?
Mr. Jewell. Oh, we stayed a week; I myself was on shore four days; and at the end of that time one-half of the force was withdrawn and the remainder stayed three or four days longer.
The Chairman. What was the disposition of the people there when you landed as to their being peaceful or turbulent?
Mr. Jewell. There were several hundred people around the courthouse, the legislative building, when we got there. The courthouse was pretty well wrecked by the mob, was in possession of a mob of natives. They cleared out of the court-house the instant we arrived on the ground. We sent a small force into the building and the rioters jumped out of the windows and cleared out, although they hung around the grounds. They were making demonstrations and were talking loudly in their own language, which we did not understand, of course.
The Chairman. Did the mob make any fight?
Mr. Jewell. They did not offer any resistance at all; no. There was one man who waved a club in front of a petty officer, but he took the man by the back of the neck and gave him a shake, and he was quieted.
The Chairman. Did you bivouack around the court-house that night?
Mr. Jewell. The men from the Portsmouth occupied the court-house, slept in the court-house.
The Chairman. Where did your men go?
Mr. Jewell. To the armory. This was a building in which there were several public offices, among them the captain's of the port; in one story there were some arms belonging to the Government, perhaps 100 stands of rifles.
The Chairman. Did you find the arms there when you got there?
Mr. Jewell. Yes.
The Chairman. Was there any organized force of the Government?
Mr. Jewell. I think nothing but the police. I have an impression that there was a militia company, volunteers or militia, but not in the service of the Government?
The Chairman. At that time did you ascertain that the Government had any regular troops?
Mr. Jewell. It has been so long ago that I can not remember. But my impression is that there was nothing organized in the Government service except the police force.
The Chairman. Did you take command of both forces?
Mr. Jewell. No; the executive officer of the Portsmouth was the ranking officer on shore. But Captain Belknap was in communication with us, and he was supposed to be in command. Although Capt. Belknap stayed on board ship every night, he was on shore every day, and our reports were made to him. The force from the Portsmouth had charge of the fort house and some other public buildings including the mint, the treasury, perhaps. I had charge of the prison and the armory. There was another significant fact connected with that landing. There was an English man-of-war in the harbor at the time. There had not been any prearrangement about the landing of her men; nevertheless, shortly after we got on shore, 75 or 80 men from the English vessel, under arms and organized, put in an appearance.
The Chairman. How long did they remain on shore?
Mr. Jewell. They remained some days; just how long I do not know. The men were not allowed to circulate very much about the town, and I kept myself pretty well confined to the barracks. But after the mob was broken up down at the court-house, the most of them went up to Queen Emma's residence, which was some distance away, and the troops from the English man-of-war, on the suggestion of Mr. Bishop, I believe, went up there to clear out the mob, and remained there. They went there to drive off the mob assembled around Queen Emma.
Mr. Jewell. Yes. I understand there were some incendiary speeches made at that time in the neighborhood of Queen Emma's residence, and perhaps Queen Emma made some remarks herself.
The Chairman. Were there any incendiary fires during the time you were on shore?
Mr. Jewell. No. The first night there were some stones thrown at the men from the Portsmouth, and a pistol shot; but in the part of the town where we were it was pretty quiet. We patrolled the streets the first night, and I do not know but that we did it after that. That
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